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Electronic_Structure.pdf - Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) 1....

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Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of agiven element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. Theatoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.Atom-basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, theratio of the number of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or asimple fraction.Law of definite proportions- different samples of the same compound always containits constituent elements in the same proportion by mass.Law of multiple proportions- if two elements can combine to form more than onecompound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the otherelements are in ratios of small whole numbers.3. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement ofatoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction.Law of conservation of mass-matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
PERIODIC TABLE-chart in which elements having similar properties aregrouped togetherPeriods- horizontal row of the periodic tableGroups/Families- vertical rows of the periodic tableMetal- good conductor of heat and electricityNon-metal-poor conductor of heat and electricityMetalloid- has properties that are intermediate between metals andnon-metalsAlkali Metals-group 1A elementsAlkaline Earth metals-group 2A elementsHalogens- group 7A elementsNoble Gases-group 8A elements
Electronic Structureof atoms
Thomson’s Model
Plum Pudding
1.atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus2.proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-)3.mass of p is 1840 x mass of e-(1.67 x 10-24g)particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107m/s(~5% speed of light)(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)Rutherford’s Experiment
atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10m

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Term
Fall
Professor
thressa
Tags
Atomic orbital, Ephoton

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