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Unformatted text preview: n, forgiveness • Embarrassment as appeasement device (Keltner & Buswell, 1997) – The display resembles mammalian appeasement displays • • • • • Expose vulnerable region Gaze aversion cut off behavior Awkward smile fear grimace in nonhuman primates Defensive face touch Cough illness • • • punished less Liked more Forgiven – Embarrassment display prompts forgiveness – People with little embarrassment, • Break rules: OFC patients, sociopaths Human reconciliation Human reconciliation • WWII: Japanese, Germans mortal enemies • South African truth and reconciliation commission • Rwanda: Hutus, Tutsis: – reconciliation commission • Biehl reconciliation project • Alternative to legal punishment Restorative justice Restorative justice • 1500 programs in US, Europe • Principles – – – – Offenders accountable Undo effects of harm Offenders reintegrate into community Respectful dialogue victim, offender • Outcome data (McCullough, 2008) – Victims 4 times less revenge – 2.6 times more likely to forgive offender – Less angry, more pleased with judicial process Forgiveness of transgressions Forgiveness of transgressions • Definition: Four components: – – – – Accepting transgression decline in punitive tendency decline in avoidance increase in compassion toward partner – Offenders have human suffering, want to be happy • Hold grudge vs. release: decline in fight of flight • • • physiology (Witvliet et al., 2001) Tsang, McCullough, & Fincham, 2006: couples who forgive happier 9 weeks later Apologies beneficial (Tavuchis) Children need to see parents reconcile (Cummings, NDU) Cooperation Cooperation • • • • Sympathy breakthroughs (Glover) Slam Marshall’s findings Cooperation on the battlefield (Axelrod) A basic choice – In marriage – In business – In political gamesmanship: Nuclear Arms race – In everyday social life • Conversations, play, eating Economic games: Theoretical Economic games: Theoretical Bac...
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