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Unformatted text preview: ; Sober & Wilson, 1998; Nowak, 2011) • Reliable Identification: Identify altruistic types • Contagious Compassion: Convert competitive interactions into cooperation • Shift Costs and Benefits of Giving • It Pays to Be Good No compassion signal in the No compassion signal in the face Compassion in the voice? Simon­ Compassion in the voice? Simon­ Thomas et al., 2009, Emotion Vocal Bursts of Positive Emotion (Simon­Thomas et al., Vocal Bursts of Positive Emotion 2009) Can we detect cooperative Can we detect cooperative individuals (Self­less genes Oxytocin Receptor Gene (rs53576) (Rodrigues, Saslow et al., 2009, PNAS) % wrong in guessi ng em oti on from eyes Minds in the Eye Empathy Score by OXTR Polymorphism 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 G/G A/A A/G Detecting Cooperators: Thin Detecting Cooperators: Thin slices of kindness (Kogan et al., 2011, PNAS) Contagious Compassion: The Contagious Compassion: The Spread of good will • Neonate distress reactions • Emotional, Physiological Convergence in Friends • Altruism spreads in work places (Christakis & Fowler, Connected, 2009) • Collective Joys in festivals, music, dance (Barbara Ehrenreich) Touch Touch Rewards Builds Trust Signals Safety Soothes n i t o m E Emotion and Touch t g i s o h C y c n u q e r F • • • • 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Correct Label Next choice Reversing Cost­Benefit Analyses: Reversing Cost­Benefit Analyses: Compassion promotes Common Humanity with those in need • Increase the Gains of Giving – Cooperation activates reward regions of the brain (Rilling et al) – Giving induces Nucleus Accumbens activation (Harbaugh) • Increase sense of common humanity – Expanded circle: Peter Singer – Compassion correlates with policy attitudes that enhance young, sick, elderly Peter Singer (1981): Evolving Peter Singer (1981): Evolving Circle of Care • Bequeath(ed) humans with a sense of empathy – an ability to treat other people’s interests as comparable to one’s own. Unfortunately, by default we apply it only to a very serious narrow circle of friends and family. People outside that circle were treated as subhuman and can be exploited with impunity. But over history the circle has expanded… from village to the clan to the tribe to the nation to other races to other sexes… and to other species. Compassion and midbrain Compassion and midbrain periaqueductal grey activation Periaqueductal Gray Periaqueductal Gray • • • Nurturant beha...
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