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Unformatted text preview: TTEST: The natural world is “grossly immoral”. Natural selection “can honestly be described as a process for maximizing short sighted selfishness ” George Williams • MORAL THEORY: Sympathy as a good natured emotion is always blind and weak . Immanuel Kant Darwin: Caregiving species and Darwin: Caregiving species and Survival of the Kindest sympathy, he argued, “will have been increased through natural selection; for those communities, which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members, would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring” (Darwin, 1871/2004, p.130). Take care or die
Take care or die An imitative species: the An imitative species: the rudiments of empathy
• Imitate scratches, posture, tones of voice, sculptures in museums
• Subliminally presented smiles (Ohman & Dimberg, 1994)
• Anderson et al., 2003: Roommates Emotions converge over the course of the year
• Neonates and distress calls (Meltzoff) Empathic Pain (Naomi Empathic Pain (Naomi Eisenberger) Pain, others’ pain: anterior cingulate The Empathy Network: Tania Singer Empathy: prefrontal cortex, Empathy: prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction From imitation to understanding From imitation to understanding (Niedenthal et al., 2010)
• Imitation gives rise to our embodied experience of others’ mental states
• Behavioral synchrony predicts better
– Teacher/student relationships
– MD/patient relationships • Empathy in romantic relationships, friendships IMAGINE
The great secret of morals is love, or a going out of our own nature, and an identification of ourselves with the beautiful which exists in thought, action or person, not our own. A man, to be greatly good, must imagine intensely and comprehensively; he must put himself in the place of another and of many others; the pains and pleasures of his species must become his own. The great instrument of moral good is the imagination. Shelley Emergence of Prosocial Emotion
Emergence of Prosocial Emotion
as evolutionarily stable strategy (Axelrod, 1984; Sober & Wilson, 1998) • As evolutionarily stable strategy: trait/adaptation that fares will visàvis other strategies (Axelrod, 1984...
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- Spring '12