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Unformatted text preview: gestures • Politeness, deference in manners • Modesty as virtue Benefits of Friendship Benefits of Friendship (Mendoza­Denton) • • • Cross race friendships Reductions in stereotyping Academic benefits – Better grades at Columbia, Berkeley – Increased trust in institutions – Reduced cortisol Benefits of strong social support Benefits of strong social support • Alameda County: Those who report weak social support 1.9 to 3.1 times • • • • • • more likely to have died nine years later (Berkman & Syme, 1979) Strong social support live longer (Adler, 2001) Strong support report greater happiness Strong support lower levels of cortisol, loneliness increases it (Kiecolt­Glase et al., 1995) Give stressful speech with supportive member in audience or with stranger (friend reduces lower blood pressure; Kamarck et al., 1990) Give stressful talk, with sense of social support show lower cortisol response (Taylor et al., 2007) Spiegel et al., 1989: women with breast cancer who are in supportive group therapy better life expectancy compared to non­intervention control (37 vs. 18 months) Forgiveness as response to Forgiveness as response to aggression, revenge, conflict • Universality of conflict – Sibling conflict • 6/hour in American families • Blue footed boobies, hyenas, sand sharks – Romantic (20% infidelity rates) • Unhappy couples: 1.5 hours of conflict a day • Partners with kids, 5­6 conflicts a day – Parent child (even in womb; Haig at Harvard) – Step relations: Wilson, Daly • Abuse 100 times more likely at hands of step relation than biological parent – Political, tribal Evolution of reconciliation Evolution of reconciliation • De Waal: Chimpanzee Politics (1984­present) – In contrast to dispersal hypothesis (that conflict parties separate spatially): – Conflict reconciliation – One animal: bowing, – exposure of vulnerable – parts of body, open­handed gestures, – Other: groom, embrace Everyday reconciliation, Everyday reconciliatio...
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