assignment 3 solution - ProblemSet3 1....

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Problem Set 3 1. Calculate D and D’ for the gamete frequencies P AB =0.2, P Ab =0.3, P aB =0.2 and P ab =0.3. A. D = P AB P ab ‐P Ab P aB = 0 Dmax = min(P Ab , P aB ), if D >0 Dmax = min (P AB , P ab ), if D <0 Here, Dmax = 0, therefore D’ = D/Dmax = 0
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2. If the recombinaKon rate is 0.21 and the iniKal disequilibrium is 0.2, how many generaKons will pass before disequilibrium is 0.02? What assumpKons were implicit in your calculaKon? D t = (1 r ) t D 0 Log D t D 0 = tLog (1 r ) t = Log D t D 0 Log (1 r ) = 9.77 AssumpKons – natural selecKon is not operaKng ‐no geneKc driR ‐random maKng
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!"#$ !$!$ !#!$ !$"$ "$!$ !$"$ !#"$ "$!$ ! !! !!! a) What is the phase of the woman in generaKon two? What is the phase of the man in generaKon two? b) Which, if any, individuals in generaKon three are recombinants? c) Is this marker locus informaKve for the disease the student wishes to study? Describe why or why not in one or two sentences.
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b) None of the offspring are recombinant c) No, the marker is not informaKve because it occurs in both forms with diseased and non‐diseased individuals DdMm DmDm DM/Dm Dm/dm dm/Dm Dm/dm DM/dm dm/Dm I II III
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4. ARer interviewing and genotyping several more families and gathering some populaKon data, the same graduate student from the study above is ready to submit her thesis. Her main finding is that the disease is fairly common in society, affecKng 1% of the individuals in her interview pool. ARer several more trials, she has found a new marker locus, which she calls Q, that is associated with the allele D 91% of the Kme. The alternate allele, q , is associated with non‐disease carrying individuals 99% of the Kme. What is the probability that an individual in the sample has the disease given that they possess the marker allele Q? Pr D ( ) = 0.01 Pr QD ( ) = 0.91 Pr q d ( ) = 0.99 Pr Q ( ) = Pr QD ( ) × Pr D ( ) + Pr Qd ( ) × Pr d ( ) Pr Q ( ) = 0.91(0.01) + 0.01(0.99) 0.019 Pr DQ ( ) = Pr D ( ) × Pr QD ( ) Pr Q ( ) = 0.01 × 0.91 0.019 = 0.48
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MutaKonal Meltdown The accumulaKon of mutaKons through processes such as Muller’s Ratchet can lead to a build up of deleterious mutaKons in populaKons At high enough levels, these mutaKons can lead populaKons to decline severely in their mean fitness, or ‘melt down’
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