PS 121 Course Notes

PS 121 Course Notes - Political Science 121 International...

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Political Science 121 International Politics 1/10/08 Goal of theories is to describe realities and predict what will happen in the future. Liberals like incremental change. They believe in Capitalism. Types of Data: Qualitative: interviewing decision makers. Doing case studies of events that happen. Quantitative Date: surveys, formal models (mathematical models). Experiments Levels of analysis: International =locate cause of international relations between nations. Argument is that all states will behave in same way in the same situation. Domestic= this makes argument that what really matters in outcomes is the internal political structure of a state (democracy, monarchy, authoritarian) and all states of the same kind will behave in the same way. When looking at this you can look at ideology or economy. Bureaucratic= It doesn’t matter what kind of states they are. Everything is determined by bureaucratic interest. It is based on your position in the government. Where you are determined where you stand. (Many people don’t count this level). Individual= this argues that leaders matter. How leaders perceive others and form judgments on intentions of others determines the actions they take on others. The reason it matters is because there are moral implications (if leaders behave in the same way, then you can’t blame an individual person for actions that you hate). This level holds leaders more accountable. There is trade-offs: richness and rigor. Rigor is can you explain a lot with a limited set of variable. Richer explains through more information. In international relations, it is important to also look at non-nation states such as Green Peace, PITA, and others. An NGO is made up of people that are not governments. Obsession with state system came into being after thirty years war with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. It set-up the state system establishing their sovereignty. Under this system, a state was known as a territory with a specific government and people and other countries were not to interfere with them. A nation refers to a specific national identity that includes language and culture. They
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may or may not have a state (ex: the Palestinians, the Kurds). This is problematic because certain people cannot participate in state organizations such as the United Nations. The United Nations has some states that are more influential and powerful than others. This is evident in the Security Council. (15 members). 5 members are permanent because they were victors in WWII (US, Britain, France, Russia, and China). The other ten members of the Security Council rotate every two years. For a vote to pass in the Security Council you need a majority of 9 votes. The 5 permanent members have veto power. A big part of the Security Council is that they lead peace missions to keep civil wars and violence from coming up. So far there have been 530 peace keeping missions. Many peace keeping missions have taken place in Africa. G-8 states are the richest countries in the world. These countries are Britain, US,
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PS 121 Course Notes - Political Science 121 International...

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