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PS 121 Second Half

PS 121 Second Half - Political Science 121 International...

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Political Science 121: International Politics Course Notes Second Half 02/19/08 International Law Realists: international laws don’t matter. They serve interests of dominant state. Liberals: These have real independence and purpose. Bush Senior’s new world order: 1. Peaceful settlement of disputes. 2. Solidarity against aggression. 3. Reduce weapons. 4. Just treatment of all people. Two kinds of international organizations: 1. Every member is a government. (UN for example) 2. NGOs (non-governmental organizations) UN is the most important international organization. It was founded in 1945 in SF with 51 states. It was a successor of the League of Nations. This would help prevent world wars. This respected state sovereignty. All states are equal under international law. Main thing they have to do is carry out international obligations. You have to refrain from using aggression if you’re in the UN and you have to observe the treaties you sign. UN is a symbol of international order as a forum where states can debate each other instead of fighting each other. US pays half of the UN budget ($1 billion). UN Security council has 5 permanent members (victors of WWI: US, Britain, France, Russia, and China) and 10 other members that rotate. These members dispatch peace-keeping missions. Every member has veto power. Reason is that every state in original Security Council wanted to make sure that they can check and balance each other. World court is judicial arm of the UN. States can only bring up cases, not individuals. Security Council decisions are “binding” to all UN members. Decisions are enforced through sanctions, etc. Within the UN, there are sub- agencies that have autonomy (two most important: International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization). International Law has 4 sources: 1. Treaties 2. Customs 3. General Practices (things that normally happen) In IR the most common is equity. 4. Legal Scholarship All these are difficult to enforce because of national power, international coalition, and because of reciprocity. The most legal cases are those that are tried in national courts with jurisdiction
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over their own territory. Reason they do that is that national courts can enforce decisions in ways that international courts cannot. Diplomacy – you set up reciprocal embassies. Issues with diplomatic pouches. You can break diplomatic ties by removing diplomats. One thing that can happen with diplomacy after wars has to do with war crimes. They have to resolve issues with prisoners of war. Soldiers can surrender by becoming prisoners of war. Every army has to recognize the neutrality of the Red Cross. Just-War Theory- A war that is waged to repel/punish aggression. Any war of aggression violates “just-war” notion. States that violate this can be subject to trials for war crimes and there has been a real revolution in the kinds of trials that take place. Nuremberg Trials in 1945 against those involved in the Nazi System for crimes against humanity.
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