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RS 131F Second Half

RS 131F Second Half - RS 131F Course Notes Second Half 4...

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RS 131F Course Notes: Second Half 02/11/08 4. Mendicant Anti-Judaism Jeremy Cohen, The Friars and the Jews: The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism (1984). The rise of new religious orders. The crisis of the 12 th and 13 th centuries. Muslims ruled the holy land and large portions of Spain. Expanding urban economy (commercial activity was sinful). Secular clergy was relatively undereducated. Heresies (Cathari, Waldensians, and Albigensians). Benedictine and Cistercian monasticism preached withdrawal from the world. Pope Innocent III (1198-1296) and the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Carroll’s description of the council (pp. 282-283). No new religious orders. The Mendicant Orders Dominic of Caleruega (Order of the Preachers or Dominicans ) founded in 1215 to teach the faith and eradicate heresy. Francis of Assisi (Order of the Friars Minor or the Franciscans ) founded in 1215. By death of Francis in 1226, both the Dominicans and Franciscans were permanent institutions within the Church and an elite force in the service of Rome. Studia Islamicum and Studia Hebraicum The burning of the Talmud in Paris 1240. Ramon Martini (early 13 th to 1284) and the Pugio Fidei (1280) - dagger of faith. Divided into three parts: 1) true nature of Christianity, 2) falseness of the Jews, 3) falseness of Islam. The disputation of 1263 between Friar Pablo Chritiani and Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Ramban or Nachmanides) in Barcelona: That the Messiah whom the Jews have been waiting has undoubtedly already come. The same Messiah as has been prophesied should at once be divine and human. The in fact he suffered and died for the salvation of the entire human race.
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That the legal and ceremonial laws of the Torah terminated and was supposed to terminate after the arrival of the said Messiah. 02/13/08 *Continued from above The core of Ramban’s response was that Friar Pablo had made a fundamental error in his reading of Jewish texts. He has brought all of his arguments from what is aggadah or Midrash . These have homiletical value [one is free to agree or disagree with them, but they have no binding or compulsory value]. He could not prove a single point using halakhah [these are the binding and required activities of Jews commanded by God through Moses and then elaborated by the rabbis]. 5) Magical Symbolism Popular Anti-Semitism : Identification of Jews, lepers, heretics, and Muslims Crusader violence against Jews in 1096. Infidel in the Holy Land; infidel in our midst The complex of magic Jews as servant of Satan or Satan himself- Moses depicted with horns. Associated Jews as the horned invaders from the North. The Jew as dangerous magician or witch The Jewish odor/scent/smell- odor of the demons/Satan The Jew cursed to wander- as a result of his rejection of Jesus. They are kept outside of cities because it is destructive and dangerous.
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