FAD3220

FAD3220 - FAD2230 Jan 14, 2008 The Study of Human...

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FAD2230 Jan 14, 2008 The Study of Human Development Developmental Periods: Infancy (birth-2) Early Childhood (3-5) Middle Childhood (7-12) Adolescence (13-transition, no definite age) Young Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Adulthood- when younger individual and parents can treat each other like adults Fastest growing segments- 65+ Ages and Stages: The evolution of different periods of child development was precipitated by societal awareness of the differential needs and characteristics of children at different ages and stages; this has become true of adulthood as well -Past times: children seen as an asset; they could work and provide for family; not viewed as very important (for studies) because they died often, so families had many, many children. -Currently: children are liabilities; wanted for emotional needs Male preferred as 1 st and 2 nd child, female as 3 rd Longitudinal Studies: -give greater insight into developmental characteristic of individuals throughout a lifespan (Berkeley Growth Study, Oakland Growth Study/ both started around 30 years ago which contain mostly highly educated white people which skews results) -Baby Books, 1st born tends to have more information Development: the emerging and expanding of capacities of the individual to provide progressively greater facility in functioning ex: young child learning to walk with uncertain steps to a high proficiency in skilled games of adolescence, from babbling to abstract thinking Achieved through: -Process of growth (quantitative change) -Maturation (qualitative change not induced by learning) -Learning (change through environmental experience) Influences in Human Development? Context… -Normative age-graded influences, e.g., puberty, starting school at age 6 -Normative history graded influence, e.g., Depression in 1930’s, socioeconomic status -Normative life events, e.g., death, living in a different culture -Ethnicity/ race
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Principles of growth and development: -G&D is directional, e.g., cephalocaudal (head to toe) and proximodistal (inner to outer) -G&D is toward differentiation and integration, e.g. from simple to complex, learning to walk and most physical activities -G&D is asynchronous, rate is not the same for all domains of growth
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FAD3220 - FAD2230 Jan 14, 2008 The Study of Human...

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