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PHYS1006Astronomy for BeginnersHKUST, Summer 2020Instructor: Prof. CHEN Tian-WenEmail: [email protected]
Course OutlinePart I : FoundationsChapter 1: The Birth of Modern AstronomyChapter 2: The Physics of Astronomy --- Gravitation, Matter, and LightPart II: Our Solar SystemChapter 3: The Earth, the Moon, and the SunChapter 4: PlanetsPart III: The StarsChapter 5: The SunChapter 6: Measuring the Stars --- Giants, Dwarfs, and the Main SequenceChapter 7: Stellar EvolutionChapter 8: Neutron Stars and Black HolesPart IV: Galaxies and the UniverseChapter 9: The Milky Way GalaxyChapter 10: Galaxies and Dark Matter --- The Large-Scale Structure of the CosmosChapter 11: Cosmology --- The Big Bang and the Fate of the UniverseChapter 12: Life in the Universe --- Are We Alone?
Part I: Foundations
Chapter 1The Birth of Modern Astronomy
Astronomy --- one of the oldest natural sciencesMany prehistoric remains are related toastronomical observations of our ancientancestors
Stonehenge in England
Big Horn Medicine Wheel in Wyoming, USA
Caracol Temple in the Mayan city of Chitzen Itza, built aroundA.D. 1000 on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula
Sun Dagger in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, USA
China: earliest known records of supernova explosions (1400 B.C.)Bone or tortoiseshell inscription from the 14th century B.C."On the Xinwei day the new star dwindled.""On the Jisi day,the 7th day ofthe month, a bignew starappeared in thecompany of theHo star."七日己巳夕有新大星并火,辛未酉殳新星殷墟甲骨文
What Does the Universe Look Likefrom Earth?
Celestial SphereThe ancient sky-watchers noted thatThestarsall appear to have the same distance from usTheir relative positions remained unchangedIt was natural for early-astronomers to concludethat the stars were attached to acelestial spheresurrounding us
At any time, half of the sphere is under the horizon andnot observableOne can usedirection(azimuth) andaltitudeto locateany point in thelocalskyThehorizonhas altitude = 0The point directly above-head has an altitude = 90and iscalled thezenithThe N-zenith-S great circle on the celestial sphere is calledthemeridian
Bright stars weregiven namesClose bright starsjoined together toform figuresChinese
Bright stars weregiven namesClose bright starsjoined together toform figuresWestern
ConstellationsA constellation isa region of thesky88 constellationsfill the entire sky
The celestial sphere appears to rotate around usonce every 23 hr 56 min 4 s (one sidereal day)The axis of rotation is the N-S direction and therotation isfrom E to WThe celestial poles are fixed in the skyAll stars appear to orbit the poles
MotionNightSky.swf

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Term
Winter
Professor
N/A
Tags
Solar System, Planet, Heliocentrism, Physics,

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