CB. Chapter 2. Hawkins - CHAPTER CHAPTER 2 CROSSCULTURAL...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER CHAPTER 2 CROSSCULTURAL CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BEHAVIOR 2-1 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer Can You Guess what Motives Underlie Men’s Can Clothing Purchases in Different Countries? Clothing Europe China Japan U.S. How Might Fashion Retailers Respond? Source: G. Deeny, “The Men Who Spend it Like Beckham,” Financial Times, February 23, 2008, p. 8 2-2 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer Can You Guess what Motives Underlie Men’s Can Clothing Purchases in Different Countries? Clothing Europe – look and feel successful Europe look China – social harmony China social Japan – look strong Japan look U.S. – reinvent themselves to seduce U.S. reinvent How Might Fashion Retailers Respond? Source: G. Deeny, “The Men Who Spend it Like Beckham,” Financial Times, February 23, 2008, p. 8 2-3 Marketing Across Cultural Boundaries is a Difficult and Challenging Task Difficult 2-4 Video Application The following Video Clip demonstrates The how Oreo adapts globally to “be the number one cookie in the world.” number 2-5 2-6 Globalization Globalization changing from One-way influence from U.S. to other countries to… Mutual influence Four major world citizens Global citizens Global dreamers Antiglobals Global agnostics 2-7 The Concept of Culture The Culture is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. 2-8 The Concept of Culture The Cultural values give rise to norms and associated sanctions, sanctions which in turn influence consumption patterns. consumption Cultures are not static. They typically evolve and change slowly over time. 2-9 Variations in Cultural Values The numerous values that differ across cultures and affect consumption include: Other-Oriented Values Environment-Oriented Values Self-Oriented Values 2-10 Variations in Cultural Values Variations Other-Oriented Values Individual/Collective Youth/Age Extended/Limited Family Masculine/Feminine Masculine/Feminine Competitive/Cooperative Diversity/Uniformity 2-11 Variations in Cultural Values Variations Environment-Oriented Values Cleanliness Performance/Status Tradition/Change Risk taking/Security Risk Problem solving/Fatalistic Nature 2-12 Variations in Cultural Values Variations Environment-Oriented Values Tradition/Change A focus on technology as an indicator of change illustrates some dramatic differences across cultures that show the following: 2-13 Variations in Cultural Values Variations Self-Oriented Values Active/Passive Sensual gratification/Abstinence Material/Nonmaterial Hard work/Leisure Postponed gratification/Immediate gratification Religious/Secular 2-14 Applications in Consumer Behavior Applications Sensual Gratification/Abstinence Ad for Calvin Klein underwear: OK in U.S. and France. Not appropriate in cultures that place a high value on abstinence. 2-15 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications 2-16 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Time The meaning of time varies between cultures in two major ways: • Time perspective • Time Interpretations 2-17 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Space Space • Overall use and meanings assigned to space vary widely among different cultures 2-18 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Symbols Colors, animals, shapes, numbers, and music have varying meanings across cultures. Failure to recognize the meaning assigned to a symbol can cause serious problems! 2-19 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications 2-20 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Relationships How quickly and easily do cultures form relationships and make friends? •Americans tend to form relationships and friends quickly and easily. •Chinese relationships are much more complex and characterized by guanxi. 2-21 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Agreements How does a culture ensure business obligations are honored? How are disagreements resolved? Some cultures rely on a legal system; others rely on relationships, friendships, etc. 2-22 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Things The cultural meaning of things leads to purchase patterns that one would not otherwise predict. The differing meanings that cultures attach to things, including products, make gift-giving a particularly difficult task. 2-23 Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Etiquette The generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations. Behaviors considered rude or obnoxious in one culture may be quite acceptable in another! Normal voice tone, pitch, and speed of speech differ between cultures and languages, as do the use of gestures. 2-24 Global Cultures A Global Youth Culture? •Mass media and the Internet have had an impact of uniformity among teens around the world. •They tend to watch many of the same shows, movies and videos, listen to the same music, and dress alike. •Technology is important factor but U.S. youth and brands no longer lead the way. 2-25 Global Demographics Demographics describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution. •Demographics are both a result and a cause of cultural values. •For example, densely populated societies, such as China, are likely to have more of a collective orientation than an individualistic one. •Disposable income is one aspect of demographics--the rapid growth in personal income in parts of China has led to an overall market explosion! 2-26 Cross-Cultural Marketing Strategy Considerations in Approaching a Foreign Market 1. Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous with Respect to Homogeneous Culture? Culture? 2. What Needs Can the Product Fill in this Culture? 3. Can Enough People Afford the Product? 4. What Values are Relevant to the Purchase and Use of the What Product? Product? 5. What are the Distribution, Political and Legal Structures for What the Product? the 6. In What Ways Can We Communicate About the Product? 7. What are the Ethical Implications of Marketing This Product What in This Country? in 2-27 ...
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