Chapter 2 - Hinduism.pdf - Chapter 2: Hindu Traditions...

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Chapter 2: Hindu Traditions Traditions at a glance Approx. 950M to 1B hindus around the world Located mostly in india, also in us, Canada, Australia and other partsIndus valley civilizations (2500-600BCE) Vedas composed – epics and puranas (500BCE-1000CE)oTemples were builtoPoetry was written in local languagesMuslim rule on N india (13-18 Century) and british rule on india (1700-1947)DIETIES oSupreme Brahman (brahma) -> not limited by gender or time §Can take many forms oSome believe it to be Shiva, Vishnu, or some form of the goddesses or just as an energyVedas – authoritative textoRamayana, Mahabharata, Bhagvad Gita and Puranas are also important All hindus believe in supreme being, and consider the soul to be immoral. Soul gains liberation and that is free from karma and the cycle of birth and death. Shruti = that which is heard o4 vedas composed of hyms and text revealed to rishis through both sight and sound Darshana = seeing and being seen by guru or diety Mediate on holy mantra -> sight and sound HINDUISM Hinduism is derived from “SIND”, now in Pakistan but a region along the sindhu river (indus). The term Hinduism was kind of recognized more after the brits came to india Sanatana Dharma = eternal faith ORIGINS Combination between indus valley and aryans The Harappan Culture Mohenjo darro and Harappa – 300 miles away but had connections Written language - not deciphered Planned cities Ended when aryans arrived, or drought, or climate changes etc The Indo – Europeans Sanskrit (Indo-Aryan language) , vedas are composed in Sanskrit Saraswati river – the believe 5 aryan tribes lived by it
The Vedas Earliest sacred text “knowledge” Shruti = that what is heard Rishis saw the mantra and orally passed it to their disciples 4 vedic collections oRig, Sama (meant to be sung), Yajur (things used in rituals as well as other ways, bring lover back etc) and Atharva 4 sections of each veda oSamhitas oBrahmanas oAranyakas oUpanishads The status of the Vedas oEternal sound and eternal word, eternal truth oBrahmins reserved the vedas to read and teach to others oVedas were revealed to the rishis oSince vedas were not composed by rishis (humans), authoritative text because though to be composed by god – hence its perfect and true oOther important texts are – info that is in veda but relevant to the time and place §Mahabharata §Natya Sastra – dance form (dance and performance) §Tiruvaymoli -> sacred utterance §Periya pura nam àa collection of life stories of saints who were devotees of shiva The Vedic Hymns oIndra = warrior god oAgni = god of fire oSoma = god of moon and a plant-based drink used in rituals oSarasvati = goddess of a great river, noble, truthful, beautiful and fortunate, speech incarnate, power of word, mother of vedas §Gayatri mantra – initiation to the life of a student oYajna – ritual sacrifice using fire §Sacrifice (animal, plant), recitation, soma oPurusha – sacrifice through which universe came into existence (Purusha Sukta) §Mouth àpriests §Arms àrulers §

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Term
Spring
Professor
Framarin
Tags
Hinduism, Vishnu, Krishna, The Bhagavad Gita,

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