EXAM TWO GUIDEThe term “Hinduism”comes from the Sindu/Indus river. Umbrella term given toa very “amorphous” tradition; not an Indian word; coined by European scholarsaround 1830. The term “Hinduism” does not refer to a unified group.Recent origins: “Western” or “Euro-North American”; no such term within atradition.The Pizza Effect -One culture is transferred into another country and thenreimported to its original culture.Harappa -Civilization discovered in 1856 and was believed that the“civilization was lost”. Development of society is hard to follow becausescholars do not know much about it.Mohenjo-Daro -One of the first major settlements in ancient India thatbecame a center of the Indus Valley Civilization.Arya -Used in Buddhism that translates as “noble”, “valuable” or “rich”. Itis used in ancient India to denote people of a certain social background ratherthan a race.Veda -Earliest compositions in any Hindu tradition. Four collections ofhymns and texts that are said to have been “Revealed” torishis(visionaries or seers) through both sight and sound; thus the sacred wordsare calledshruti(“that which is heard”). This dual emphasis on seeing andhearing the sacred is a characteristic of all Hindu traditions.Henotheism -The supreme status and worship of one god whileacknowledging that there are other lesser gods that may be worshipped. (byMax Muller).
Sanatana-Dharma -Alternate word for ‘Hinduism’ which isn’t anindigenous term. It translates to ‘Eternal Religion’ It is used to refer to localmanifestations of the faith. “Dharma” comes close to “Religion” and meansrighteousness for Hindus.HINDUISM-Shorthand for the diverse philosophies, arts, branches of knowledge andpractices associated with people and communities who have someconnection (geography, biological, intellectual, or spiritual) with the Indiansubcontinent.Karma (“action”) -Refers to a system of rewards and punishments attachedto various actions. Concept of Karma implies a continuing cycle of death andrebirth or reincarnation called Samsara.Rsi (“poet-sages”) -Rsi is Sanskrit spelling, its rishis in english. They arethe Vedic seekers, they "saw" the mantras and transmitted them to theirdisciples; they did not invent or compose themYajna (Sacrifice) -part of the vedic hymns. It was a ritual sacrifice typicallyperformed using fire.