LD - Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities SPE...

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Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities SPE 300-006 Spring 2006
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Introduction Learning disabilities is a hidden disability. The problems students with LD experience are most obvious in the classroom. Many famous people have achieved significant accomplishments despite having severe learning disabilities.
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Terminology More than 90 terms have been used in the literature to describe individuals with LD. Some of the more common terms are: Minimal brain dysfunction Brain damage Central processing dysfunction Language delay
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1997 IDEA Definition “Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, of mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.”
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Common Sense Definition (Harwell, 1989) An individual with a learning disability is one who: can see can hear has general intelligence in the near-average, average, or above-average range has educational difficulties that do not stem primarily from inadequate educational experience or cultural factors does not acquire and use information efficiently because of an impairment in perception, conceptualization, language, memory, attention, or motor control
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Prevalence There are far more students with learning disabilities than any other disability. Some consider this increase to be an “epidemic.” 52% of all children with disabilities are identified as learning disabled. 4 boys to every girl are identified as LD. About 5% of the school-aged population has learning disabilities.
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Causes of LD Experts generally agree that learning is hindered in children with LD because of neurobiological abnormalities or atypical brain development and/or function in how the brain processes information. This causes an unexpected discrepancy between intelligence and achievement.
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Causes of LD Genetic Factors Causes Occurring Before Birth Causes Occurring During Birth Process Causes Occurring After Birth Advances in neurological research and use of computerized neurological techniques such as CAT and PET scans have led professionals to believe that LD has a neurological explanation.
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Common Classroom Characteristics Motor Skills & Coordination Problems Cognition Deficits Social- Emotional Problems Perceptual Difficulties Memory Deficits Language Deficits Metacognition Deficits Attention Deficits and Hyperactivity Academic Deficits
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Academic Deficits Discrepancy between ability and achievement Variability across skill areas is common
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