Bio Notes Chapter 2 - oxygen nucleus Therefore weak zones...

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Chapter 2- The Chemical Basis of Life I. Atoms, molecules and water I. Atoms – the smallest functional units A. 3 primary particles a. Electrons, protons, neutrons (table 2.1) B. Hydrogen (an element) one of 92… 3 isotopes exist: Hydrogen (1 e, 1p)… deuterium (1e, 1p, 1n) … tritium (1 e, 1 p, 2 n) C. O,C,H,N – Very abundant Table 2.2 – phosphorous and sulfur CHOPNS ~98% of living matter +2% trace “elements” *still important Eg. I, Fe cannot live without II. Chemical bonds molecules a. Atom + atom = molecule b. Fact: atoms are most stable when electron outer shell is complete c. 1 st Shell- one orbital (2 e’s) 2 nd shell- four orbitals (8 e’s) III. Types-examples a. Covalent – are strong (involve sharing of electrons) b. Equal sharing H 2 c. Unequal sharing H 2
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Statistically speaking, at any instant in time, H’s electrons are pulled towards the
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Unformatted text preview: oxygen nucleus. .. Therefore weak zones of charge exist d. Ionic Bonds e. Hydrogen bonds f. Hydrophobic interactions g. Vander Waals interactions IV. H 2 O – “special properties” – sticky! H 2 O-high specific heat- amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram to change temp by 1 degree Celsius Why so high? H-bonding Heat must be absorbed to Heat released when H bonds form break before any change in temp. Upshot: H 2 O is a fairly stable environment Electronegativity: measured as dimensionless “pauling units” Likeliness to take e- from another element-Scale from .7 to 4.0 (H=2.2, C=2.55, O=3.44, F=3.98) It is a molecular as well as an atomic property Dissociation of water molecules...
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Bio Notes Chapter 2 - oxygen nucleus Therefore weak zones...

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