Bio Notes Chapter 12

Bio Notes Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Gene Expression at the...

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- Gene expression is gene function at: the molecular level and the level of traits. - The main products of gene expression are polypeptides. - Must control levels and timing of production - Beadle and Tatum studied Neurospora (bread mold) o Wild type grows on minimal media o Studied mutants that needed other nutrients o Concluded: one gene controls the synthesis of one enzyme o Current understanding: one gene- one polypeptide (because enzymes are only 1 type of protein) Central dogma: transcription to translation (DNA RNA Protein) Transcription : a copy of a gene in messenger RNA is produced Translation : a gene is produced using the transcript But, eukaryotes make pre-mRNA and process it into mRNA; prokaryotes make mRNA directly Transcription and translation determine a cell’s proteins and therefore a cell’s structure and function. (Difference between red and white eyed flied is expression of one gene (for a membrane transporter) Molecular definition of a gene: An organization unit of DNA sequences that enables a segment of DNA to be transcribed into RNA. Ultimately results in the formation of a functional product. Structural genes: code for polypeptides 90% of all genes are structural. Nonstructural genes: code for translation machinery:
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Bio Notes Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Gene Expression at the...

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