Likewise an irreversible refrigerator or a heat pump

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Unformatted text preview: hermal energy reservoirs. Likewise, an irreversible refrigerator or a heat pump has a lower coefficient of performance (COP) than a reversible one operating between the same temperature limits. Another important inequality that has major consequences in thermodynamics is the Clausius inequality. It was first stated by the German physicist R. J. E. Clausius (1822–1888), one of the founders of thermodynamics, and is expressed as Q T That is, the cyclic integral of dQ/T is always less than or equal to zero. This inequality is valid for all cycles, reversible or irreversible. The symbol (integral symbol with a circle in the middle) is used to indicate that the integration is to be performed over the entire cycle. Any heat transfer to or from a system can be considered to consist of differential amounts of heat transfer. Then the cyclic integral of dQ/T can be viewed as the sum of all these differential amounts of heat transfer divided by the absolute temperature at the boundary. To demonstrate the validity of the Clausius inequality, consider a system connected to a thermal energy reservoir at a constant absolute temperature of TR through a rev...
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This document was uploaded on 11/28/2012.

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