Chapter 23 Lecture 1

Chapter 23 Lecture 1 - 3 C 4 H 10 General formula for...

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CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 1 CHEMISTRY & LIFE: ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY The number of covalent bonds carbon usually form. WHY ? C has an atomic number = 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Methane has 4 equivalent covalent bonds. On the basis of the electronic structure of the carbon atom there does not appear to be any logical reason for carbon to form four equivalent bonds. However, the four valence electrons can re-organize to form four new (hybrid) orbitals to accommodate the four hydrogen atoms each with an electron and form the four covalent C-H bonds. SP 3 HYBRID
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CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 2 All four bonds of the sp 3 are exactly the same: bond lengths, bond angles and bond strengths. They are arranged in a tetrahedral shape:
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CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 3 LINE DRAWING STRUCTURES A “short-hand” method of drawing organic structures where the C-H bonds are omitted and the carbon atom is represented by an angle. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH
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Unformatted text preview: 3 C 4 H 10 General formula for Alkanes: C n H 2n+2 n-butane Line-Angle Drawing ISOMERS - Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 2-Methylpropane C 4 H 10 2,2-Dimethylbutane C 6 H 14 Cyclohexane C 6 H 12 General Formula for Alkenes (hydrocarbons with one double bond) C n H 2n CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 4 1-butene C 4 H 8 2-butene C 4 H 8 General Formulas for Alkynes (Hydrcarbons with one triple bond) C n H 2n-2 1-butyne C 4 H 6 2-butyne C 4 H 6 REVIEW NOMENCLATURE RULES IN APPENDIX D OF THE TEXT CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 5 BOND CLEAVAGE TYPES REACTION MECHANISM CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 6 SUBSTITUTION REACTION Replacement of an atom in a molecule by a different atom or group. CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 7 HOMEWORK PROBLEM CHAPTER 23 LECTURE 1 Page 8 Determine the molecular formula of cholesterol from the line drawing shown below: CHOLESTEROL...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 1124 taught by Professor Mohan during the Fall '07 term at Seton Hall.

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Chapter 23 Lecture 1 - 3 C 4 H 10 General formula for...

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