Cell Cycle1 - The Cell Cycle An orderly set of stages and...

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The Cell Cycle
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The Cell Cycle An orderly set of stages and substages between one division and the next Just prior to next division: Cell performs its normal activities Cells grow larger Number of organelles double DNA is replicated The two major stages of the cell cycle: Interphase (90%) Mitosis Why cycle? Growth, cell replacement, asexual reproduction Constantly Cycling Inducible Non-cycling (G 0 ) Bone marrow: 10 hrs Stomach/intestine: 2-3 days Skin: 45 days RBCs: 100-120 days Liver: 18 months Nerve, skeletal + cardiac muscle: lifetime
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The Cell Cycle
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Cell Cycle Interphase Mitotic Phase
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Cell Cycle - Control
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Apoptosis - Programmed Cell Death Mitosis and apoptosis are opposing forces Mitosis increases cell number Apoptosis decreases cell number Cells harbor apoptosis enzymes (caspases)
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Eukaryotic Chromosomes DNA (40%) with Histone Proteins (60%)
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Chromosome Number Most familiar organisms diploid - 2 chromosomes of each type Humans have 23 different types of chromosomes Each type is represented twice in each body cell (diploid = 2n = 46 in each nucleus) Only sperm and eggs have one of each type (haploid- n) The n number for humans in n = 23 One set of 23 from individual’s father (paternal) Other set of 23 from individual’s mother (maternal) Human karyotype Homologous Chromosomes “Homologues”
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Chromosome Number of Some Eukaryotes
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Duplicated Chromosomes At end of S phase: Each chromosome internally duplicated Consists of two identical DNA chains - Sister chromatids - Attached together at a single point (centromere) During mitosis: Centromeres holding sister chromatids together simultaneously break Sister chromatids separate Each becomes a daughter chromosome Sisters of each type distributed to opposite daughter nuclei
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Cell Cycle1 - The Cell Cycle An orderly set of stages and...

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