GeneEx1 - Gene Activity How does DNA contain the...

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Gene Activity Gene Activity How does DNA contain the instructions that specify a bacterium, garden pea, fruit fly, human?
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Function of Genes Genes Specify Enzymes Beadle and Tatum: - Experiments on fungus Neurospora crassa - Proposed that each gene specifies the synthesis of one enzyme - One-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis Genes Specify a Polypeptide A gene is a segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide Suggests that genetic mutations cause changes in the primary structure of a protein
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Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA in genes specify information, but information is not structure and function Genetic info is expressed into structure & function through protein synthesis DNA in gene controls the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA molecule RNA controls the primary structure of a protein replication
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Ribonucleic Acid - RNA Ribonucleic Acid - RNA RNA is a polymer of RNA nucleotides RNA Nucleotides are of four types: Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) of DNA Types of RNA tRNA - Transfer (tRNA) - Transfers appropriate amino acid to ribosome when “instructed” mRNA - Messenger (mRNA) - Takes genetic message from DNA in nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm rRNA - Ribosomal (rRNA) - Makes up ribosomes which read the message in mRNA
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Overview of Gene Expression Triple code DNA Codons mRNA Structural gene Amino Acids Protein
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Transcription RNA polymerase Gene unzips and exposes unpaired bases Serves as template for mRNA formation (sense strand) Loose RNA nucleotides bind to
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Pott-santone during the Fall '08 term at Northeastern.

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GeneEx1 - Gene Activity How does DNA contain the...

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