Nutrition Final Outline

Nutrition Final Outline - Nutrition Final Outline Alcohol...

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Nutrition Final Outline Alcohol - Provides little nutrient value other than energy - Large quantities interfere with nutrient absorption and cause damage to every organ - Is an addictive drug in vulnerable people - Alcohol diffuses through the stomach wall and reaches the brain in 1 minute - It is a poison that can only be tolerated in small, dilute doses - It is a diuretic - When consumed slowly the liver collects EtOH and detoxifies it - EtOH is a depressant - Processing of alcohol depends on amount of enzyme ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) in liver and stomach o Excess EtOH is recircluated to brain and other systems til ADH is available - EtOH in one drink is process in 60-90 minutes depending upon body size, food eaten, and previous drinking experience - 7 calories per gram of EtOH - Hangover: dehydration of brain - Chronic intake of alcohol can cause damage to the brain, lover, nervous system, gastrointestinal system o Fatty liver, effect on immune system, excess blood lipids, symptoms of gout, reproductive system abnormalities o Toxic to heart and skeletal muscle, increase in blood pressure, dementia, cancers of breast, mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum and lungs o Increased risk of diabetes, GI ulcers, psychological depression, impaired immune response, malnutrition, increased risk of death from all causes - When over the age of 60, 1-2 drinks a day reduces risk of death from CVD o More EtOH increases risk - Moderate red wine decreases CVD Vitamins - Organic substances needed in minute amounts - Do not supply energy/calories, regulate chemical reactions allowing the body to obtain energy - Fat soluble and water soluble - Fat soluble: vitamins A, D, E, and K o Difference in solubility affects the way body absorbs, transports, and stores vitamins o Efficiency of absorption falls as dietary intake increases above body’s needs o Accumulate and stored indefinitely o Excess intake of A and D can be toxic - The more food is processed the more vitamins are lost - Vitamin A: vision, reproduction, growth, immunity, cell differentiation, health of bones, skin, mucous membranes o Stored in liver
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- Vitamin D o Also a hormone o Essential for bone health o Regulates blood calcium levels, may have anticancer effects, possible treatment for psoriasis, may trigger cell differentiation, o Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D Works with parathyroid and calcitonin to regular calcium in blood Alters: amount of calcium released from the bone, excreted from the kidney, and absorbed from intestine o Infants need supplement after 9 months o Most people make and store enough vitamin D in summer months o Inadequate vitamin D Rickets: skeletal deformity in children Osteomalacia and Osteoporosis o Toxicity from supplements Hypercalcemia: excessive urination and thirst, deposits in soft tissues such as kidneys, blood vessels, heart, and lungs - Vitamin E o Antioxidant: protects cell membranes in all parts of the body from damaging effect of oxidation o Stabilizes cell membranes and defends cells against free radical attack,
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Nutrition Final Outline - Nutrition Final Outline Alcohol...

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