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Nutrition Midterm Review

Nutrition Midterm Review - Nutrition Midterm Review...

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Nutrition Midterm Review Nutrition: the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, and excretes food substances o A nutrient is an essential chemical in food that supports human life Calculating total calories in food: (Grams carbs x 4) + (grams protein x 4) + (grams fat x 9) Calculate percentage of nutrient 25 gm of Carb x 4 if the food has 400 calories then Carbs contribute 25% of those calories Hypotheses are formed from observations and then tested by experiments o Epidemiological studies: compare disease rates among population groups, provide information about relationships but do not clarify cause and effect, show correlation because 2 factors o Animal studies: provide preliminary data that may lead to hypotheses, sometimes used because an experiment cannot be tested on humans, followed with cell culture or human clinical studies o Cell culture studies: can isolate cells and grow in lab, study effects of nutrients or other components of food on metabolic processes of cells o Human studies: 2 types Case control: small scale epidemiological study, one group that has a conditioned is compared to another without it, 2 groups are matched as closely as possible, examine one difference, no intervention Clinical Trials: controlled studies that include intervention, experimental group and control group compared, random assignment to study groups: reduces risk of bias, show clear cause and effect There are several different food pyramids o food guides created in other countries vary from the US o in the US guides differ for special populations (age, special diets) and ethnic groups The Mediterranean diet o People seem to have less heart disease o There is much variation in the diet: low in saturated fat, high in monosaturated, low in meal and meat products, high in legumes, grains, fruits, and vegetables, moderate in milk, dairy products, and alcohol o 40% of calories is fat limit animal fat o Legumes help will blood sugar control, keep blood cholesterol low, may inhibit growth of some cancers, must be eaten in combination with something else Food exchange lists are specific for individual needs
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o Used for diabetes or weight management o Food groups have similar macronutrient profile o Portions are defined o Diet plan specifies number of exchanges from each group which are divided into meals and snacks (groups: carbohydrate, meats, fat) Nutrition assessment o Anthropometrics is measurements of height, weight, head circumference, and skin fold measurements o Biochemical: lab values of hormone levels, blood tests, etc o Clinical: observations of skin, hair, nails, lips, etc
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