March 10, 2008 - o Differentiation o Gravity pulls high...

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o Mercury & the moon o Heavily cratered (heavy bombardment) o Some volcanic plains, a few cliffs and ridges o Venus o Volcanoes and bizarre bulges o Some evidence of liquid water at one point o Has atmosphere o Earth o Most of the above plus liquid water and life o Not much cratering o Has atmosphere o Has water o Mars o Shows evidence of water o Volcano (extinct) o Astronomy of a planet o Defined by density o Layering by strength A planet’s outer layer of cool, rigid rock is called the lithosphere It “floats” on the warmer, softer rock that lies beneath o Earth Anatomy o Metal core 1/3 of the radius Highest density Nickel, iron o Mantle Medium density Silicon, oxygen o Rocky crust Thin Lower density Granite and basalt o Magnetic fields are clues to in inside o 3 things are required for a magnetic field Electronically conducting interior Convection Rotation o Earthquakes can ‘ping’ the interior o Vibrations that travel through the earth’s interior tell us about the densities and composition of the material on the inside
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Unformatted text preview: o Differentiation o Gravity pulls high density materials to the center o Lower-density material rise to the surface o Material ends up separated by density o Requires that all material in the core/mantle was once moten Ice and rock need to melt separate o Today, only outer layer of the core and outer mantle is liquid, the rest us solid Despite high temperature, pressure keeps rocks solid o Processes that heat planets o Accretion Gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy Kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy (vibration {kinetic} create friction {thermal}) o Differentiation Light materials rise to the surface Dense materials fall to the core, converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy (friction as the materials move {thermal}) o Radioactive decay Mass-energy contained in nuclei is converted to thermal energy o...
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