04-Anthocerophyta, Bryophyta.pdf - BIOL1309 EVOLUTIONARY...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL1309 EVOLUTIONARY DIVERSITY 4. Non-vascular plants (cont.) NON-VASCULAR PLANTS NON-VASCULAR PLANTS NON-VASCULAR PLANTS: Alternation of generations haploid (n) diploid (2n) DOMINANT = there is an alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid phase in the life cycle SPORIC MEIOSIS NON-VASCULAR PLANTS NON-VASCULAR PLANTS HEPATOPHYTA (LIVERWORTS) LIVERWORTS HEPATOPHYTA (LIVERWORTS) ‘THALLOSE’ types ‘LEAFY’ types ANTHOCEROPHYTA (HORNWORTS) HORNWORTS ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros Elongated sporophyte Thallose gametophyte ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros • Gametophyte contains a colony of Nostoc cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) able to fix atmospheric nitrogen ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros • Gametophyte contains a colony of Nostoc cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) +,+ • Example of symbiosis anthoceros: cultivate and protect the Nostoc ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros gaseous exchange pores the sporangium are able to create its food ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros mature cells immature cells ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros gradation in terms of the maturity of the spores cells 4× MATURE SPORES cluster of forest spores that came from the same maternal cell SPORE TETRAD MEIOCYTE (spore mother cell) ANTHOCEROPHYTA: Genus Anthoceros spores will be released at the ideal time, dry air wind BRYOPHYTA (MOSSES) MOSSES BRYOPHYTA (MOSSES) BRYOPHYTA: Classification • Class BRYIDAE (true mosses) most mosses • Class SPHAGNIDAE (peat mosses) • Class ANDREAEIDAE (granite mosses) BRYOPHYTA: Protonema • Spores germinate to produce PROTONEMA (immature gametophyte) chloroplast spore germinaing BRYOPHYTA: Protonema • Spores germinate to produce PROTONEMA (immature gametophyte) BRYOPHYTA: Protonema • Spores germinate to produce PROTONEMA (immature gametophyte) BRYOPHYTA: Classification • Class BRYIDAE (true mosses) • Class SPHAGNIDAE (peat mosses) • Class ANDREAEIDAE (granite mosses) BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae grow horizontal BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae Antheridia and archegonia localized at apex of stems BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae PARAPHYSES ANTHERIDIA gametophyte BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae protecting against desiccation/ no function PARAPHYSES ARCHEGONIA BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae CAPSULE (SPORANGIUM) BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae CALYPTRA (papery cap, derived from enlarged, dead archegonium) sporaophyte is protecte by the archegonium upper half of archegonum, which is torn off elongation of the stalk sporangium, stalk, fruit BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae it will be removed OPERCULUM spores ready to be released food BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae spore released rainy, the teeth will fold back again BRYOPHYTA: Class Bryidae PERISTOME TEETH MOSS MOSS ANTHERIDIA and ARCHEGONIA borne on GAMETOPHYTE MOSS ANTHEROZOID (SPERM) fertilizes egg inside archegonium, producing ZYGOTE MOSS SPOROPHYTE matures; SPORANGIUM produces spores MOSS Spores germinate to produce PROTONEMA BRYOPHYTA: Classification • Class BRYIDAE (true mosses) • Class SPHAGNIDAE (peat mosses) • Class ANDREAEIDAE (granite mosses) BRYOPHYTA Class Sphagnidae • Example: Genus SPHAGNUM BRYOPHYTA Class Sphagnidae Sporophyte raised on gametophytic PSEUDOPODIUM PSEUDOPODIUM BRYOPHYTA Class Sphagnidae pressure build up inside BRYOPHYTA: Classification • Class BRYIDAE (true mosses) • Class SPHAGNIDAE (peat mosses) • Class ANDREAEIDAE (granite mosses) BRYOPHYTA Class Andreaeidae • Example: Genus ANDREAEA BRYOPHYTA Class Andreaeidae shrink when air is dry gametophyte BRYOPHYTA Class Andreaeidae ...
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