Social Influence - SOCIAL INFLUENCE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:...

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1 SOCIAL INFLUENCE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:  Definition, social vs. personality  psychology, person-situation debate, p x s interaction  COGNITIVE BASIS OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE: ATTRIBUTION THEORY Types of attributions, fundamental  attribution error, actor-observer bias COGNITIVE DISONANCE Definition, foot-in-the-door effect BYSTANDER EFFECT:  Kitty Genovese’s case, diffusion of  responsibility COMFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:  Asch’s study; Milgram’s  study 
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2 …like all others Human nature level (universal) …like some others Group level   …like no others Individual level 3 Levels of Personality Analysis 3 Levels of Personality Analysis Every human being is… SOCIAL Psychology
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3 Social Psychology • The scientific study of the ways that  people’s behavior and mental processes are  shaped by the real or imagined presence of  others …. that is, how the individual mind works in the actual  presence of others, implied presence of others, and the  imagined presence of others.
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4 Our behavior is affected by inner  mechanisms (e.g.,  traits, motives, cognitions) as well as by external   social influences (situational pressures, roles,  expectations etc.) Internal attitudes External influences Behavior PERSONALITY  PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL  PSYCHOLOGY
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What predicts behavior? What predicts behavior? The Person-Situation Debate The Person-Situation Debate [ [ late 60s-mid 80s] late 60s-mid 80s] INTERNAL  FORCES ! (the person) CONTEXTUAL   FORCES ! (the situation) PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL  PSYCHOLOGY; PSYCHOANALYS SOCIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL   PSYCHOLOGY; BEHAVIORISM
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6 PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO CONTROVERSY INTERACTIONISM  Very often, a big chunk of behavioral variance (y) is predicted by  the interaction between the situation (S) and personality (P), that is:  PxS       BEHAVIOR (y)  =   P   +  S   +  P x  +  error
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7 Example of a significant interaction effect between personality and  the situation
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8 Job type (S) Creative   vs. Uncreative  behavior News-paper Clerical   BEHAVIOR (y)  =   P   +   +  P x S  + error   = creative work performance  P =   openness to experience  (scores on this measure were used to  divide people in two groups:  HIGH  and  LOW  Openness)   S =  clerical job vs. student newspaper job HIGH HIGH LOW LOW (Y) HIGH LOW
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9 COGNITIVE BASIS OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE   ATTRIBUTION THEORY :   Studies the psychological processes behind how people  ascribe (i.e., attribute) causes to events --self and others, that  is, how we explain the causes behind behavior 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 002 taught by Professor Benetmartinez during the Spring '08 term at UC Riverside.

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Social Influence - SOCIAL INFLUENCE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:...

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