11. Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes - Neuropsychology of learning and memory frontal and temporal lobe

11. Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes

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Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes - Frontal lobe syndrome = damage to just the prefrontal area (most anterior portion of brain) o Frontal lobe has primary motor cortex that’s in charge of motor function. Motor association cortex is anterior to primary motor cortex, that is in charge of planning movements and knowing what the consequences are o Used to think anterior part of brain was where intelligence was stored (phrenology) o Frontal lobe = prefrontal area in this lecture o Jacobson took monkeys and removed frontal lobe. Noticed they had problem in delayed response tasks WGTA (Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus) = skinner box for monkeys; monkey sits on one side of the table and experimenter on the other with a curtain in between them. You have 2 cups that have peanut or raisin in one of them, and then they are covered with different coloured lids. Curtain closes and the cups get switched around. Curtains removed and monkey learns how to pick the cup that has food in it If monkeys could see the solution to the problem and then react right away, they were able to solve the problem. If there was a delay between the time they saw the solution to the problem and the time they were able to react, they were not able to. In this case, seeing/understanding the solution = seeing experimenter put raisin in a cup and covering it reacting = choosing which cup has the raisin in it If you put normal monkey in cage, and put banana outside cage just beyond its reach, the monkey will try to find something to pull banana in with. Monkeys with frontal lobe damage would look around for a stick, but because of the delay between seeing the problem and seeing the solution to the problem, they could not perform the solution. Seemed like they would see the stick, and forget what they needed the stick for Jacobson thought frontal lobe damage led to short-term memory loss o Jacobson would leave monkeys in dark, or give them tranquilizers and would find monkeys were able to perform solution suggesting that it was not a matter of memory, but a emotional/distractibility phenomenon Sedatives reduce distractions Monkeys with frontal damage could not solve problems if you alternated what coloured cup the raisin was under

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