PSY 621 u2013 CHAPTER 2.docx - PSY 621 u2013 CHAPTER 2 1...

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PSY 621 – CHAPTER 2 1. Evoluntionary Perspective: use principles from evolutionalry biology to explain why certain pattersn of social behaviour and psychological mechanisms have evolved in animals including humans =>sociobiology Evolution: A theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their generic endowmwnt over successive generations Natural selection: A process in nature resulting in greater rates of survival of those plants and animals that are adapted to their environment Facial masculinity had more impact on attractiveness ratings in countries with poorer health, as measured by mortality, life expectancy, and communicable disease Several obstacles to reproduction success: infant vulnerability and maternal death. => parents are most interested in the survival and reproductive success of their generic offspring. In men, physiological sexual arousal is specific to stimuli depicting their preferred sexual partner, whereas women show physiological arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and nonpreferred sex partners, and even to stimuli of animals. Sexual selection: Selection that results from differences in traits affecting access to mates. It consists of two processes: (1) competition among members of one gender (usually males) for mating access to member sof other gender, and (2) preferential choice by members of the other gender (usually females) for certain members of the other gender. In other words, in many, species, males compete among themselves for the right to mate with females; females, for their part, prefer certain males and mate with them while refusing to mate with other males. 2. Sexual strategies: womena and men face different adaptive problems in short-term, or casual, mating and in long-term mating and reproduction. Male sexual strategies are not consistent but change in response to personal characteristics and environmental contigencies Sex ration influences female long-term mating strategies;women place more emphasis on a man’s resources in selecting a husband when men are plentiful compared to women 3. Psychological Theories: psychoanalytic theory, learning theory, social exxchange theory, and cognitive theory a. Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud – contains a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious. Said that human personality is being divided into three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the basic part of personality and is present at birth. It is the reservoir of psychic energy (including libido). Basically, it operates on the pleasure principle – that is, the instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain to satisfy basic needs
The ego operates on the reality principle and tries to keep the id in line. The ego funtions to make the person have realistic, rational interactions with others The superego is the conscience. It contains the values and ideals of society that we learn, and it operates on idealism. Its ai is to inhibit the

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