Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Genetics and Biological Foundations...

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Chapter 3: Genetics and Biological Foundations Genetics focused on whether people possessed certain types of genes. The main idea was on the fact to which human traits were genetically hard wired, and left little room for environmental factors. Recent research shows that the study of genes shows that environment plays an important role in how genes are expressed and therefore in how they influence mind and behaviour .over the past 3 decades there has been research done to figure out certain DNA for people. What is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science? Major outgrowths of the new biological revolution happened in 2001. 2 groups of scientists wrote articles, which were about the Human Genome project. In every cell of the body is the genome for making the entire organism. It provides detailed instructions for everything from how to grow a gall bladder to where your nose is on your face. It depends on whether the genes are turned on or off to be able to tell those functions. It is determined by cues outside the cell. The genome provides the option, and the environment determines what option is taken. The term genetics is used to describe height, hair colour, and weight, and how their passed through inheritance, and also to the processes involved in turning the genes on and off. In each cell are chromosomes: structures made up of genes. (a person has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Half of the pair comes from each parent) Genes are part of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which consists of 2 intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen. This shows exact instructions through RNA (ribonucleic acid) to manufacture distinct proteins. Proteins make up the structure of the cells and direct their activities. Gene: segment of DNA that is involved in producing proteins that carry out specific tasks. The process that the gene produces RNA and then protein is known as gene expression . (the gene is switched “ON”.)
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Each cell in the human body contains the same DNA, but they become specialized for different tasks. Gene expression allows us to learn, see and fall in love. Heredity Involves Passing along Genes through Reproduction: Clues of hereditary were discovered by Gregor Mendel around 1866. He developed the technique selective breeding. The 2 versions of a gene are known as alleles. If they differ than one is dominant and the other is recessive. Dominant genes : expressed whenever they are present Recessive genes : expressed when they are matched with a similar gene from the other parent. Genotype and Phenotype: Genotype : genetic constitution of an organism, the actual genetic makeup that is determined at the moment of conception. Phenotype: Are the observable physical characteristics of an organism that result from both genetic and environmental influences. Polygenic effects:
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor N/a during the Fall '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Genetics and Biological Foundations...

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