Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: the brain and consciousness...

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Chapter 4: the brain and consciousness Phrenology is a theory based on ideas that the brain operated on a principle of functional localization. Phrenology: the practice of assessing personality traits and metal abilities by measuring bumps on the human skull. The left frontal region of the brain is known as Broca’s area , and has to do with the production of language. What are the Basic Brain Structures and Their Functions?: The Spinal Chord is Capable of Autonomous Function: The spinal chord is a rope of neural tissues that runs inside the hollows of the vertebrae. It has its own spinal nerves along the sides of the chord that communicate info to and from the rest of the body. Seen to have 2 tissue types: Grey matter: dominated by the cell bodies of neurons White matter: consists mostly of axons and the fatty sheaths that surround them. Sensory information from the body enters the spinal chord and is passed to the brain. Stretch Reflex : conversion of sensation into action by a handful of neurons and the connections between them. The Brainstem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival: Spinal cord continues up to the base of the skull, when it thickens and transforms into the Brainstem: a section of the bottom of the brain that houses the most basic programs of survival, such as breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm. Reflexes are stored here. The nerves have distinct cells within the brainstem that handle their needs. When you stimulate certain areas it allows you to do different things, like walk, or turn left. Reticular Formation : networks of neurons are called the reticular formation . They go up into the cerebral cortex and affect general arousal. The Cerebellum is Essential for Movement: Cerebellum is a large protuberance connected to the back of the brainstem. It looks like another little small brain. It performs identical operations on all of its inputs with
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different effects coming from the differences in origin, destination, and information. Important for motor function. Damage to the little nodes at the bottom cause head tilt, loss of balance, and lose of eye movement. Damage to the ridge at the back affects walking. Damage to the bulging lobes causes loss of limb coordination. Patients with cerebellum have symptoms of ataxia which is clumsiness and loss of motor coordination. Subcortial Structures Control Basic Drives and Emotions: Above the brainstem and the cerebellum is the Forebrain. Most noticeable thing when looking at it from the front it the cerebral cortex. Below are the subcortial regions. Things that are involved in the limbic system are: hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, amygada, and basal ganglia. Hypothalamus:
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: the brain and consciousness...

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