Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Perception is the only bridge we have...

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Chapter 5 Perception is the only bridge we have with the world. We rely on info provided by our sense organs our eyes, ear, skin, nose, and tongue. Each gives us different info. The way we experience the world is in 2 phases: sensation and perception. Sensation= how sense organs respond to external stimuli and transmit the responses to the brain. Perception= the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals that result in an internal representation of the stimulus. What we hear and see is the result of brain processes that actively construct perceptual experiences to allow adaptation to the environment. How do we sense our world? Sensory organs gain info about environment by converting forms of physical enery into signals that the brain can understand. Stimuli must be coded to be understood by the brain: Sensory coding= the way sensory organs translate stimulus’s physical properties into neural impulses. Different features are coded by different patterns. Transduction= a process by which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical stimulation. Neurons send info to the brain in the form of neural impulses. They are received in the thalamus where it sends it to the different sections of sight, smell, hear, taste, or touch. Sensation is carried by nerve impulses. Can be divided into 2 categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative: intensity, brightness, and loudness is affected by neural firing frequency. The higher the frequency the brighter or louder the stimulus. Qualitative: focuses on colour, and taste. Receptors provide coarse coding, where sensory qualitites are coded by only a few receptors which responde to a broad range of stimuli. The Stimuli, Receptors, and Pathways for each sense
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Sense Stimulus Receptors Pathway to the brain Hearing Sound waves Pressure-sensitive hair cells in cochlea of inner ear Auditory nerve (8 th carnial nerve) Vision Light waves Light-sensitive rods and cones in retina of eye Optic nerve (2 nd cranial nerve) Touch Pressure on the skin Sensitive ends of touch neurons in skin Trigeminal nerve for pain above the neck. Spinal nerves for touch elsewhere Pain Wide variety of potentially harmful stimuli Sensitive ends of pain neurons in skin and other tissues Trigeminal nerve for pain above the neck. Spinal nerves for pain elsewhere Taste Molecules dissolved in fluid on the tongue Taste cells in taste buds on the tongue Portions of facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves Smell Molecules dissolved in fluid mucous membranes in the nose Sensitive end of olfactory neurons in the mucous membranes Olfactory nerve Discovered by Gustav Fechner in the 19 th century he asses things as how physical energy is required for our sense organs to detect that energy and how much change is required before we notice it.
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