Berk, Ch 7, pp. 246-285:
Be able to name and describe the first two stages in Erikson’s psychosocial
theory and the ages to which they apply
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust: infancy- When the balance of care is sympathetic and
loving, the psychological conflict of the first year- basic trust versus mistrust- is
resolved on the positive side. If the trusting infant feels confident about venturing
out and exploring it, he emerges from this stage well-prepared for toddlerhood.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: toddlerhood- This conflict is resolved favorably
when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable
choices. Toddlers do best when they are not attacked for failing at new skills, like
toilet training and putting away toys, and when his parents meet his assertions of
independence with tolerance and understanding (ex: giving him an extra five
minutes to finish playing before leaving for the grocery store).
Both basic trust and autonomy grow out of warm, sensitive parenting and
reasonable expectations for impulse control starting in the second year. If a child
emerges from these stages without trust in caregivers and a sense of individuality,
adjustment problems may occur later in life.
When do infants begin social smiling; when do they begin laughing?
Social smiling: between 6 and 10 weeks
Laughing: 3-4 months
What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions of happiness,
anger, sadness, and fear in infants?
The basic emotions are universal in humans and other primates and have a long
evolutionary history of promoting survival.
Sensitive, contingent caregiver communication helps infants construct emotional
expressions. Around 6 months, face, gaze, voice, and posture form organized patterns
that vary meaningfully with environmental events. By the middle of the first year,
emotional expressions are well-organized and specific.
What is stranger anxiety?
Stranger Anxiety: A fear of unknown adults- the most frequent expression of fear
What is social referencing?
Social referencing: actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in
an uncertain situation.
What are the self-conscious emotions and when do they begin to appear?