Cell Form and Function Anatomy Notes

Cell Form and Function Anatomy Notes - Cell Form and...

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Cell Form and Function Chapter 3
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Cell Theory of the Past Spontaneous generation – idea that cells came  from nonliving body fluid i.e – living things arise from non-living  matter – mud turns into frogs, grain into rodents Not until 1859 with Louis Pasteur was the  spontaneous generation discredited Accredited that cells arise only from other cells
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Modern Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells A cell is the simplest structural and  functional unit of life An organism’s structure and its’ function  are due to cell activity Cells come from other cells – not  nonliving matter Cells of all species have similarities 
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Cell Shapes and Sizes 200 types of cells which vary in shape Squamous – thin and flat   Line the esophagus and cover the skin Polygonal – irregular angular shapes Cuboidal – squarish Found in the liver Columnar – taller than wide Lining the intestines
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Spheroid/Ovoid – round to oval egg cells and fat cells Discoid – disc-shaped red blood cells Fusiform – thick in the middle and  tapered at the ends Smooth muscle cells Fibrous – threadlike Skeletal muscle cells
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Cell Structure http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/images/illu_cell_ Plasma membrane – encloses a cell and  usually contains a nucleus Made of proteins and lipids Cytoplasm – everything between the plasma  membrane and the nucleus Organelles – compartmentalize the contents of  the cell Cytoskeleton – supportive framework Fluid inside the cell is called intracellular fluid  whereas the fluid outside the cell is extracellular Inside the cell fluid: intracellular (ICF)
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Back to the Plasma Membrane General characteristics Defines the boundary of the cell Governs interaction between cells Controls passage of materials into and out of  the cell
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Anatomy of the Plasma Membrane 98% of the molecules in the membrane are  lipids – 75% being phospholipids, 20% being  cholesterol molecules Arrange themselves so the hydrophilic end faces the  water of the membrane and hydrophobic tails face the  center of the membrane (pass through the lipid layer) Cholesterol molecules stiffen the membranes in spots  Membrane proteins Provides 2% of plasma membrane, but 50% of the  weight
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Functions of the membrane proteins Act as receptors  – chemical signals cannot enter the  target cell, but bind to these surface proteins Second-messenger systems
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Cell Form and Function Anatomy Notes - Cell Form and...

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