# 4 - Chapter 4 Inductive and Causal Generalizations Prove it...

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Chapter 4: Inductive Arguments- Statistical and Causal Generalizations Prove it to Me: What are the Statistics?

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Flashback and Jumpstart The previous three chapters should have helped us understand the foundations of arguments – issues, reasons, conclusions, value assumptions and reality assumptions. Now the fun really begins. Starting this week, we will cover a series of topics that will really sharpen most of our critical thinking skills An important source of misinformation in everyday life comes from people deliberately trying to misinform or mislead others using spin and manipulating statistics –the following topics will train you to catch those attempts in the future
After Studying this chapter… You should be able to use basic knowledge of statistical principles to evaluate the quality of evidence used to support various arguments. It should help you develop an appreciation of what constitutes good statistical research and a greater confidence in your own abilities to understand statistical information. You should gain a basic understanding of theories of causation; this understanding will help you comprehend the research studies to follow in Chapter 5. You should also be more discerning about the reporting of statistical research in general and learn that problems often have multiple causes, so that you can avoid drawing hasty generalizations unlike what most people, who have not been to college, would do.

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First, what are inductive arguments as opposed to the deductive arguments we previously covered in Chapter 3 Inductive arguments involve reasoning from specific observations to broader generalizations. Deductive arguments involve reasoning from the general to the more specific as you saw in those testy syllogisms in the previous chapter.
Inductive Reasoning

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Deductive Reasoning .
Just a Reminder, again… Deductive reasoning seeks to establish certainty of a conclusion based on true premises presented in valid form. Inductive reasoning seeks to establish a likely

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## This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSCI 1050 taught by Professor Fodeibatty during the Summer '06 term at Western Michigan.

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4 - Chapter 4 Inductive and Causal Generalizations Prove it...

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