11 Hypertension - Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Cardiovascular Disease: Cardiovascular Hypertension and Cardiovascular Shock Pages 418 & 429 Hypertension: prolonged and prolonged consistent elevation of arterial blood pressure Hypertension: Primary types/causes Hypertension: • • • • • Essential (genetic?) Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Renal Endocrine Plaque in an Artery Progress of the Disease 1. Increased TPR 2. Increased cardiac work to maintain CO – Increased O2 demand --> increased CO 3. Hypertrophy of cardiac and blood vessel muscles – – Decreased compliance & increased R and BP! Increased O2 demand --> increased CO 4. Baroreceptor reset Baroreceptor reset 5. Positive feedback ! Consequences: heart attack and Consequences: myocardial infarct • Hypertrophied cardiac muscle – Increased diffusion distance for O2 – Coronary arteries --> atherosclerosis • Leads to death of ventricular muscle cells • Replaced by non-contractile scar tissue – Myocardial infarct – Rest of ventricle must make up for this nonfunctional area Consequences: Fibrillation Consequences: • Diseased area of ventricle disrupts normal pathway of action potentials over surface of the heart. • Some areas of ventricle are not stimulated • Action potentials may continue to pass over ventricle in random pathway – Normally cardiac AP refractory period stops this – No effective pumping beat Consequences: edema Consequences: • Pulmonary – Decreased O2 diffusion --> additional increase in CO • Renal – Renin - angiotensin --> increased TPR – Na+ & K+ levels • Liver – Blood glucose levels Treatments Treatments • • • • • • • Diuretic ACE inhibitors β blockers α blockers False NTs Ca++ channel blockers Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors – i.e., blood thinners - aspirin Cardiovascular Shock Cardiovascular • Decreased CO leads to oxygen debt in critical tissues – Heart - decreased CO – Nervous system - loss of reflexes • Positive feedback! Types or Causes Types • Cardiogenic • Hypo-volemic – Hemorrhagic or burn victims • Decreased TPR – e.g., anaphylactic via histamine • Emotional Symptoms of Shock Symptoms • • • • • • Cold, clammy skin Sweating Dilated pupils Rapid shallow pulse Hypotension Loss of pupil reflex Explain these! Stages of Shock Stages • Non-Progressive & Reversible • Progressive but reversible • Progressive & Irreversible % o f C O t atmen Tre Reversible Progressive 100 Reversible Non-Prog Non-reversible Progressive RIP TIME --> Bottom Line: Bottom O2 debt of 120 mls O2 / kg of body weight defines irreversible always fatal Treatment of Shock Victims Treatment • • • • Keep warm Check pupillary light reflex Elevate feet Administer i. v. fluids – Plasma expanders • Epi • (anti-histamines for anaphylactic) ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern