Psych Book Review Test 3

Psych Book Review Test 3 - TIPS FOR STUDYING SIEGLER ET...

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T IPS FOR S TUDYING S IEGLER ET AL .: E XAM T HREE Read everything in the assigned chapters. You will be tested over the following concepts and passages. Entire passages are indicated by italics. C HAPTER E LEVEN : The Self in Childhood - As children get older, their self conceptions become increasingly complex and encompassing - Age 3-4 o Children understand themselves in terms of concrete, observable characteristics related to physical attributes, physical activities and abilities, social relationships, and psychological traits o Also describe themselves in terms of their preferences and possessions o Their self evaluations are unrealistically positive, and seem to think that they are really like what they want to be o Maintaining these illusions about themselves is easy because they generally don’t compare their performances with that of others and do not recognize their deficits - Social comparison: the process of comparing aspects of ones own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself - Age 8 – 11 o Their conceptions of themselves reflect cognitive advances in their ability to use higher-order concepts that integrate more specific behavioral features of the self o Can coordinate opposing self-representations o Can construct more global views of themselves and evaluate themselves as a person overall; result in a more balanced and realistic assessment of the self, although they also can result in feelings of inferiority and helplessness Personal fable & imaginary audience - Personal fable: a story that adolescents tell about themselves that involves beliefs in uniqueness of their own feelings and their immortality o “But you don’t know how it feels” or “My parents don’t understand me, what do they know about being a teenager?” - Imaginary audience: the belief, stemming from adolescent egocentrism, that everyone’s else is focused on the adolescents appearance and behavior 5 components of ethnic identity 1. Ethnic knowledge: children’s knowledge that their ethnic group has certain distinguishing characteristics – behaviors, traits, values, customs, styles and language – that set it apart from other groups 2. Ethnic self-identification: children’s categorization of themselves as members of their ethnic group 3. Ethnic constancy: children’s understanding that the distinguishing characteristics of their ethnic group that they carry in themselves do not change across time and place and that they will always be a member of their ethnic group 4. Ethnic-role behaviors: children’s engagement in the behaviors that reflect the distinguishing characteristics of their ethnic group 5. Ethnic feelings and preferences: children’s feelings about belonging to their ethnic group and their preferences for the characteristics that distinguish it and for its members The Process of Coming Out - First recognition: an initial realization that one is somewhat different from others, accompanied by feelings of
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Psych Book Review Test 3 - TIPS FOR STUDYING SIEGLER ET...

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