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Unformatted text preview: Histology
Chapter 5 Review 4 major types of tissue Epithelial is closely paced cells that form glands, and cover organ systems ~Get more info~ Connective has matrix (extracellular) more than cells binds together and connects cells Nervous: responsible for transportation for information to other parts of body Muscular Epithelial 2 major types Each type further breaks down primarily based on their shape
Squamous: flat Columnar: rectangles Cuboidal: cubed Psuedostratified (simple) Simple: one layer of cells Stratified: two or more layers of cells Connective Tissue Overview Consists mostly of fibers and ground substance Therefore, are cells close together or widely separated? Widely separated Primary function is to connect organs to each other Functions of Connective Tissue Connecting organs to each other Tendons: muscle to bone Ligaments: bone to bone Fibrous tissue Support bones and cartilage Protection brain, ribcage, etc. Immune protection Cells attack foreign bodies and forms "battleground" (white blood cells) Function continued Movement Storage Bones providing the lever system; cartilages ease joint movement Fat: heat Bone: calcium and phosphorous Heat production: produced from fat Transport Blood transports gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, blood cells Connective tissue After birth connective tissue falls into 3 broad groups Fibrous connective tissue: bones & cartilage Supportive connective tissue Fluid connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue Consist of fibers, cells, and ground substance 3 types of protein fiber found in tissue Collagenous See NOTES Reticular thin fibers covered with glycoprotein Elastic made of protein called elastin Cells (6 different types) Fibrous connective tissue Fibroblasts produce fibers and ground substance that forms the matrix of the tissue Macrophages wander through tissue and eat and destroy bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells arise from White Blood Cells (WBC) Leukocytes (WBC) most are neutrophils which search for bacteria; lymphocytes are also WBCs that react against bacteria, toxins, and foreign bodies in the mucous membrane Fibrous connective tissue Cells Plasma some lymphocytes change to plasma cells once they detect foreign particles; synthesize antibodies (disease fighting proteins) Mast secrete heparin (blood clotting inhibitor) and histamine (increases blood flow dilates vessels) Adipocytes (fat cells) filled with triglyceride; if they dominate an area, tissue is referred to as adipose Tissue Cell Images http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campb ell/connective_tissue/wp_images/24_elastic _fibers.gif http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/fibe http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/co http://home.mc.ntu.edu.tw/~histol/images/connec Fibrous connective tissue Ground substance empty spaces between cells and fibers protects the cells from injuring Three classes of large molecules that absorb compressive forces, help hold tissue together, regulate water and electrolyte balance of tissues, and forms a lubricant in the joints Types of fibrous connective tissue 2 Broad categories
Areolar Reticular Adipose * Loose connective tissue * Dense connective tissue
Dense regular Dense irregular Loose connective tissue Areolar possesses all 6 cell types Fibers run in random directions Fibers mostly collagenous Found in most parts of the body; surrounds blood vessels and nerves Function epithelium rests on a layer of areolar tissue in which the blood vessels provide nutrients, waste removal, and WBCs when needed Image http://webanatomy.net/histology/connective Loose connective tissue Reticular consists of reticular fibers and fibroblasts Adipose adipocytes are primary cells in tissue Forms structure of organs and tissues Functions primary energy reserve, protection, thermal insulation, shaping the body Image of Tissues http://webanatomy.net/histology/connective http://webanatomy.net/histology/connective Dense connective tissue Dense regular More dense than ground space Collagen fibers are packed close together Fibers run parallel to each other Only cells present (minor a few exceptions) are fibroblasts Yellow elastic tissue collagen fibers + more fibroblasts and branching elastic fibers Dense connective tissue Dense irregular tissue Thick bundles of collagen Collagen runs in random directions (not parallel like dense regular tissue) Constitutes most of the dermis binding the skin to the underlying muscle Forms a protective sheath around organs, bones, nerves, and cartilage Allows tissue to resist unpredictable stresses Images of Dense Tissue http://webanatomy.net/histology/connective http://webanatomy.net/histology/connective TIME OUT! Cartilage Connective tissue with a rubbery matrix Chondrocytes see NOTES Injured cartilage heals slowly because there are no blood vessels present except when chondrocytes are transforming into bone 3 types of cartilage Hyaline cartilage contains collagen fibers with an invisible fineness Tip of your nose, "Adam's apple" http://w3.ouhsc.edu/histology/Glass%20slides/13_07.jpg Elastic cartilage consists of elastic fibers External ear http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab7/IMAGES/elas Fibrocartilage cartilage has course bundles of collagen Intervertebral disc http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab7/IMAGES/c.t% Perichondrium dense, irregular tissue surrounding elastic and hyaline cartilage http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/miller/014967fig89.gif Blood A fluid connective tissue composed of Erythrocytes RBC Leukocytes WBC Platelets small cell fragments scattered in blood cells
Assist in clotting and minimizing blood loss Secrete growth factors promoting blood vessel growth and maintenance Fight bacteria and infections Bone Known as osseous tissue 2 forms of osseous tissue Spongy See NOTES Compact or dense see NOTES Spongy bone is covered with compact http://www.glaciermedicaled.com/bone/1_0 Excitable tissue Nervous tissue and muscular tissue are excitable tissues There is an electrical charge which occurs across the plasma membrane These two types of tissue respond quickly to an outside stimuli Nervous tissue = transmission of signal Muscular tissue = contraction Nervous tissue Consists of nerve cells, neurons Function detect stimuli, respond, transmit information quickly to cells http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farab Excitable tissue Muscular tissue There are three types of muscle tissue which differ in appearance, physiology, and function What is the primary function of muscular tissue? To create movement, protect, contractions, produces heat What other jobs are muscular tissue responsible for? Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Junctions Cells must be anchored to each other Intercellular junctions are responsible for the attachment Three types of junction Tight junction Seals off the space between cells Closes off the intercelluar space Desmosome Connect cells at patches to resist stress Neighbors are separated by glycoprotein filaments Gap Junction Contain pores allowing substances to pass from cell to cell Found in intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and smooth muscle cells Why is a gap junction important to these cells? Endocrine vs. Exocrine Glands
ENDOCRINE Lack ducts Release secretions into the bloodstream EXOCRINE Release secretions through ducts onto the surface of an organ Types of Secretions Glands are also classified by their secretions not just by their structure Serous glands Mucous glands Mixed glands Cytogenic glands Membranes Cutaneous membrane surrounds the "skin" Relatively dry Mucous membrane internal membrane Why is being dry a positive attribute? Keeps out bacteria. Contains absorptive, secretory, and protective function Serous, endothelium, and synovial membranes Serous internal membrane (digestive system) Synovial secretes synovial fluid into joints in the skeletal system Endothelium lines the circulatory system/blood vessels ...
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- Spring '08