BIOL1011K midterm study sheet.docx - BIOL1011K Introduction...

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BIOL1011K, Introduction to Biology [Fall 2018] Mid-Term Exam Study Guide Units 1-4 Use the following list of topics to prepare for the final examination. The topics listed below coincide with the textbook’s chapters. Be familiar with: I. Introduction to Biology a. The Levels of Organization i. Cells>tissues>organ systems>organism>population>community>ecosystem>biosphere 2. The Characteristics of Living Things i. Properties of Life ii. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes (characteristics of both) -Prokaryotes: single celled organisms, lack organelles surrounded by a membrane, do not have nuclei surrounded by nuclear membranes -Eukaryotes: have membrane-bound organelles and nuclei 3. The Process of Science i. Experimental design (the role of a control) -does not change ii. Definition of a theory. - A scientific theory is a generally accepted, thoroughly tested and confirmed explanation for a set of observations or phenomena iii. Definition of a hypothesis, and what make a hypothesis valid.
- a suggested explanation for an event, which can be tested. -For a hypothesis to be considered valid, it must make a prediction that scientists can test using a repeatable experiment 4. Taxonomy -the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics. i. Know the three domains and organisms found in each one. -eukarya: organisms that have cells with nuclei. It includes the kingdoms of fungi, plants, animals, and several kingdoms of protists. -archaea: single-celled organisms without nuclei and include many extremophiles that live in harsh environments like hot springs. -bacteria: another quite different group of single-celled organisms without nuclei II. The Chemistry of Life a. Matter i. Subatomic particles that make up atoms (charge and location) - nucleus (center) of the atom contains the protons (positively charged) and the neutrons (no charge). -electron shells outermost regions of the atom and contain the electrons (negatively charged).
ii. Definition of an isotope - different forms of the same element that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. iii. Calculating the Atomic Mass of an Atom - add the number of protons and neutrons and multiply by 1 amu . b. Chemical Bonds i. Characteristics of Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen -covalent: form when an electron is shared between two elements and are the strongest and most common form of chemical bond in living organisms. polar and nonpolar. Nonpolar covalent bonds form between two atoms of the same element or between different elements that share the electrons equally. polar covalent bond, the electrons shared by the atoms

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