The Armenian Genocide, 1915-1923Key Terms•Genocide•Armenian Genocide•Raphael Lemkin•Ottoman Empire•April 24, 1915•Armenian Question•Young Turk Revolution
•20thcentury – “a century of Genocide.” ArmenianGenocide, Holocaust, Rwandan Genocide, etc.The term“genocide”•Raphael Lemkin coined the word “genocide” in1943•Greekgenos(race) + Latin-cida(kill)•He became interested in mass murder because heattended the trial of the Armenian revenger, whokilled one of the perpetrators of the ArmenianGenocide in Berlin.•Eventually, Lemkin’s term became the bases of the UNGenocide convention of 1948The term “Genocide”Raphael Lemkin,the author of the word“Genocide”
The meaning and definition ofGenocideUN Genocide convention of 1948The Genocide Convention was the first human rights treaty adopted by theGeneral Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1948.According to this document,genocidemeans any of the following actscommitted with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racialor religious group, as such:(a)Killing members of the group;(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in wholeor in part;(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Armenian Genocide-The Atrocities committed against the Armenian people of the OttomanEmpire during the World War I, which resulted in a death of 1,5 millionArmenians.It included all major characteristics of the notion “genocide” describedin the Convention.To understand the Armenian Genocide, we should understand its:•Causes•Process•Victims and perpetrators•Aftermath
The Armenian case of Genocide: Historical BackgroundThe Ottoman Empire and Modern European History•The Rise of the West and the decline of theOttoman Empire-Increase of foreign pressure•The advent of nation state and rise ofnationalism-Nationalism of the subject people- Turkish state nationalism
Loss of Territories and Rise of State Nationalism inXIX and early XX centuries•Incompetence to deal with the issue of ethnicminoritiesa) Loss of territoriesb) intensification of the “culture of violence”-- Chios Massacres of the Greeks, 1824-- Assyrian massacres, 1843, 1946---Bulgarian massacres, 1870s-- Hamidian massacres of the Armenians, 1894-1896
Armenians in the Ottoman EmpireArmenians were one of the subject people•second-class citizens•Inequality•Continuing Ottoman violence against them(forexample, massacres of some 300 thousands Armenians in1890s)•After the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the