1-2:Essential Nutrient: 26/100, THOSE SPECIFIC NUTRIENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED IN THE DIET BECAUSE THE ANIMAL LACKS THE BIOCHEMICAL MEANS OF PRODUCING THE NUTRIENT ON ITS OWN. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen sulfur Fat: 9 kcal/gCarb: 4 kcal/g Protein: 4 kcal/gHierarchy terms nutrient bioAbundance- The amount of nutrient present in the food or feed Digestibility-The amount of nutrient, which is present, that is broken down by the digestive process into a usable form Absorbability-The amount of nutrient, which was broken down into a usable form, that is actually absorbed into the body (Classic Digestibility)Availability-The amount of nutrient, which was absorbed, that was actually used in a biologically significant functionBioavailability- The unifying term that includes all factors that may impact the utilization of nutrientsProtein:(C, H, O, N, some S) amino acids, peptide bonds, building blocks for bodyFat:triglycerides, soluble in some organic solventsCarbs: (C, H, O) monosaccharides, quick source of energy1-3:Proventriculus:HCl secreted, pepsin, lipase, granular stomachVentriculus:needs protecting bc stomach so acidic can harm outside lining, 4 major musclesPyloric Valve:add sodium bicarbonate to increase pH, flow back and forwardsOrder of organs: duodenum, jujenum, ileumBile:digests fat, cholesterol, liver produces and pancreas storesHuman Bile Acids- Taurocholic Acid & Glycocholic AcidChicken Bile Acids- Chenodeoxycholyltaurine & Chloyltaurine1-4:Autoenzymatic digestion: digestion resulting from enzymes originating from the bird itself.nutrient transport:transcellular: through epithelial cells, paracellular: between cells, pinocytosis: newly hatched chick. ***MOST POPULAR***Three mechanisms:Active: requires energy, passive/simple diffusion, facilitated1-5:
Joule: The international unit of work. One joule is equal to about 0.239 calories.