411 test one review.docx - 1-2 Essential Nutrient 26/100...

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1-2: Essential Nutrient : 26/100, THOSE SPECIFIC NUTRIENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED IN THE DIET BECAUSE THE ANIMAL LACKS THE BIOCHEMICAL MEANS OF PRODUCING THE NUTRIENT ON ITS OWN. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen sulfur Fat: 9 kcal/g Carb: 4 kcal/g Protein: 4 kcal/gHierarchy terms nutrient bio Abundance- The amount of nutrient present in the food or feed Digestibility- The amount of nutrient, which is present, that is broken down by the digestive process into a usable form Absorbability- The amount of nutrient, which was broken down into a usable form, that is actually absorbed into the body (Classic Digestibility) Availability- The amount of nutrient, which was absorbed, that was actually used in a biologically significant function Bioavailability - The unifying term that includes all factors that may impact the utilization of nutrients Protein: (C, H, O, N, some S) amino acids, peptide bonds, building blocks for body Fat: triglycerides, soluble in some organic solvents Carbs : (C, H, O) monosaccharides, quick source of energy 1-3: Proventriculus: HCl secreted, pepsin, lipase, granular stomach Ventriculus: needs protecting bc stomach so acidic can harm outside lining, 4 major muscles Pyloric Valve: add sodium bicarbonate to increase pH, flow back and forwards Order of organs : duodenum, jujenum, ileum Bile: digests fat, cholesterol, liver produces and pancreas stores Human Bile Acids- Taurocholic Acid & Glycocholic Acid Chicken Bile Acids- Chenodeoxycholyltaurine & Chloyltaurine 1-4: Autoenzymatic digestion: digestion resulting from enzymes originating from the bird itself. nutrient transport: transcellular: through epithelial cells, paracellular: between cells, pinocytosis: newly hatched chick. ***MOST POPULAR*** Three mechanisms: Active: requires energy, passive/simple diffusion, facilitated 1-5:
Joule: The international unit of work. One joule is equal to about 0.239 calories.

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