Review for Exam 1

Review for Exam 1 - Exam 1 Vocabulary 10/10/2007 11:07:00...

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Exam 1 Vocabulary 10/10/2007 22:07:00 Chapter 1: Principles of Archaeology Prehistory- in general, the human past, specifically, the time before the  appearance of written records Archaeology- the study of the human past, combining the themes of time and  change Era- a major division of geological time, tend or hundreds of millions of years  long, usually distinguished by significant changes in the plant and animal  kingdoms.  Also used to denote later archaeological periods, such as the  prehistoric era M.y.a- millions of years ago Epoch- a subdivision of geological time, millions of years long, representing  units of eras Culture- a uniquely human means of non-biological adaptation; a repertoire of  learned behaviors for coping with the physical and social environments Evolution- the process of change over time resulting from shifting conditions  of the physical and cultural environments, involving mechanisms of mutation  and natural selection Artifact- and object or item created or modified by human action Site- the accumulation of artifacts and/or eco-facts representing a place  where people lived or carried out certain activities Fieldwork- the search for archaeological sites in the landscape through  surveys and excavations Ground-penetrating radar (GPR or georadar)- an instrument for remote  sensing or prospecting for buried structures using radar maps of subsoil  features Bioturbation- activities of plants and animals in the earth, causing disturbance  of archaeological materials Shell midden- a mound of shells accumulated from human collection,  consumption, and disposal; a dump of shells from oysters, clams, mussels, or  other species found along coasts and rivers, usually dating to the Holocene Eco-fact- any of the remains of plants, animals, sediments, or other  unmodified materials that result from human activity Feature- an immovable structure or layer, pit, or post in the ground having  archaeological significance Ethnography- the study of human cultures through firsthand observation
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Technology- the combination of knowledge and manufacturing techniques  that enable people to convert raw materials into finished products Economy- the management and organization of the affairs of a group,  community, or establishment to ensure their survival and productivity Organization- the arrangements between individuals and groups in human  society that structure relationships and activities Egalitarian- a term that refers to societies lacking clearly defined status  differences between individuals, except for those due to sex, age, or skill
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH 0582 taught by Professor Hanks during the Fall '07 term at Pittsburgh.

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Review for Exam 1 - Exam 1 Vocabulary 10/10/2007 11:07:00...

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