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THEORIES THROUGHOUT NURSINGLacey BlachutAspen University
Describe 8 nursing theories used in practice today1Identify barriers to each theory2Provide patient outcomes for each theory3Apply examples of application of each theory4OBJECTIVES
FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: ENVIRONMENTAL THEORYA healthy environment, including internal and external influences, is essential for bodily health. These environmental factors include pure air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness, and light. Applications to current practiceExample One: Assessing the older adult for available resources to promote independence and health: environmental servicesExample Two: Improved ventilationExample Three: Verbalizing the need for cleanliness and infection prevention(Smith & Parker, 2015)
Positive Patient OutcomesExample One: Quick recovery from illnessExample Two: Access to outside available resourcesExample Three: Show effective coping mechanismsNursing Satisfaction•Competent nursing care provides satisfaction to the patient, in return satisfaction to the nurse•Holistic care can promote joy in the nurse•Positive working environment(Smith & Parker, 2015)
BARRIERS TO NIGHTINGALE’S THEORYBarrier One:Financial constraints of the patient may prevent the individual from acquiring a clean and healthy environment. The method to overcome financial difficulties is providing resources outside of the hospital that are easily attainable for the patient and realistic. Barrier Two:Disease is not always a direct result of the environment. The method to over come this is realization from the nurse that disease and illness can be a result of trauma or genetics(Smith & Parker, 2015)
OREM’S THEORY OF SELF-CAREPatient’s are encouraged to be independent by preforming activities to maintain their own health. When this is unattainable, nurses should intervene. Applications to current practice•Example One: Patient awareness of potential problems associated with disease process•Example Two: Adherence to medical regimen•Example Three: Adjustment of lifestyle changes and modification of self image(Smith & Parker, 2015)
Positive Patient Outcomes•Compliance with plan of care including medication administration•Positive changes to lifestyle that will promote health•Maintain balance between activity and restNursing Satisfaction•Assisting patient in setting goals•Effectively carry out prescribed diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services•Providing an environment suitable for personal development and future demands(Smith & Parker, 2015)
BARRIERS TO OREM’S THEORYExample One: Emphasis on physical care and less on emotional wellbeing; the focus is more illness orientated rather than wellness orientated. Methods to over come this include treating the patient as a whole unit and not as a disease or disorder.