ppt 1 study guide - VertFacts...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

Vert Facts57K+ extant species of verts, live everywhere, diverse bodies, feeding, reproductiongroupings based on embryonic development (w/ membrane = amniote, w/o membrane = non‐amniote)AmnioteNon‐AmnioteSauropsids (reptiles, birds)Synapsids (mammals)Primary terestrialMyxinoidea (hagfish)Chondrichthyes (sharks)Osteichthyes (body fish)AmphibiansPrimarily aquaticNON AMNIOTESclosed embryosmembranes are maternal (part of the unfertilized egg, not a ‘true’ membrane)Vitelline membrane (a transparent membrane surrounding and secreted by the fertilized ovum,preventing the entry of further spermatozoa.)‐ keeps species specific, prevents polysperm, protects the developing embyoHagfish (myxinoidea) (slime fish)Lamprey (petromyzontoidea) (rock sucker)Live on sea bed, 70 speciesMigrate, live in oceans but spawn in rivers,38 speciesElongated body forms, no limbs, no scales, no internal bones, no real verts, hascraniumAgnathans (cyclostomes) – jawlessChondrichthyesSkeleton made of cartilageSharks (403 sp, 15 cm – 10 m)Rays (534 sp, dorsoventrally flattened, bottom dwellers)Ratfish (33 sp, single membrane covering gills, long tails, buck teeth, seafloordwellers, eat crustaceans and mollusks)OsteichthyesBoney fish, too diverse to completely characterizeLobe finned = sarcopterygians, 8 sp, closely related to verts, boney limbsRay finned = actinopterygians, 27K+ sp, always finding new spchondrostei = birchirs, sturgeon, paddlefishneopterygii = teleostei (most abundant)AmphibiansCombined urodela, anura, and gymnophiona (caeciliansgroups)‘double life’ = aquatic larvae, terrestrial adultall have bare skin for respiration and osmoregulation
AMNIOTESest. late Devonian period (416 mya)early versions had similar charateristics‐ scales (no hair/feathers), dilute urine, simple lungs, single heart ventriclemore terrestrialsecondary aquatic speciessea turtles, whalesmultiple fetal membranesamnion encloses fetuschorion helps nutrient and gas exchange (placental like?)allantois helps gas and waste exchangeevolved special physiologies bc of moving land massesoxygen extractiontemp controlosmoregulationcirculationSauropsid AmniotesTestudiniaTurtles, tortoises and terrapins (land and sea dwellers)Hard shellsNothing in common with all other vertsLepidosauriaLizards (5K), snakes (3015), tuataraScales and similar skull morphologiesTuatara only found in NZ (2 sp)CrocodiliaAlligators and Crocodiles (23 sp total)Up to 7 meters in lengthSkin has tiny bones under scales (osteoderms)Very attentive parentsAvesBirds (9670+ sp)Evolved ability to fly in the MesozoicFeathers evolved before flight (for courtship)Synapsid AmniotesMammaliaPaleozoic era, 4.8K extant sp

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Winter
Professor
Staff

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture