Logic 9-11 - Philosophy of the Human Person Quiz September...

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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy of the Human Person Quiz September 11, 2007 Which one of the following is not a premise indicator? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. For the reason that Because Whence Inasmuch as Since Which one of the following is not a conclusion indicator? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Thus So Hence Since Accordingly Which one of the following is not required for an argument? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Premise Conclusion Inference Indicator Statement The opening discussion in the MENO is about... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Intelligence Courage Righteousness Virtue Honesty Socrates maintains that people desire what is bad because they... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Have been raised improperly Are bad people themselves Have been mislead by bad companions Are lacking in knowledge Are frustrated with their life Meno compares Socrates to a... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shark Torpedo fish Sea urchin Coral reef Eel Gary Atkinson is carrying a black umbrella because he... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Believes he is being shadowed by replicants and is prepared to fight them off Can see the spiritual rain falling in the auditorium which unholy people and sinners cannot see Is a magical nanny Cannot afford one of a different color Has mistaken it for a laser pointer Philosophy of the Human Person Logic Presentation September 11, 2007 Argument =def Arguments Argument =def Arguments A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Argument =def Arguments 1. Note the use of the word "claimed" in the definition. Not all arguments actually do provide support for what they claim to. NOTES: A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Argument =def Arguments 1. Note the use of the word "claimed" in the definition. Not all arguments actually do provide support for what they claim to. 2. Also note that an argument is a collection of statements. NOTES: A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Argument =def Arguments 1. Note the use of the word "claimed" in the definition. Not all arguments actually do provide support for what they claim to. 2. Also note that an argument is a collection of statements. NOTES: A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Statements should be distinguished from sentences. Argument =def Arguments 1. Note the use of the word "claimed" in the definition. Not all arguments actually do provide support for what they claim to. 2. Also note that an argument is a collection of statements. NOTES: A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Statements should be distinguished from sentences. We can think of statements as the content expressed by a declarative sentence. Argument =def Arguments 1. Note the use of the word "claimed" in the definition. Not all arguments actually do provide support for what they claim to. 2. Also note that an argument is a collection of statements. NOTES: A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Statements should be distinguished from sentences. We can think of statements as the content expressed by a declarative sentence. Statements make claims that are either true or false. Which of the following sentences does not express a statement? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. og rm el on ll d th e A ut W If yo u Sh at e w an tt All dogs are black. 2 + 2 = 4 Shut the door, please. Watermelons taste good. If you want to go to the store, I will go with you. 0 of 5 ac k 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4 . se . le a g. .. e o go th ... to 2 + = do or ,p ar e bl s s ta st 2 Arguments Argument =def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Arguments Argument =def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Premises: The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence that aim to establish something Arguments Argument =def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Premises: Conclusion: The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence that aim to establish something The statement that the evidence is claimed to support Arguments (example) Here's an example: All UST students are intelligent and Sarah is a UST student. So it follows that Sarah is intelligent. Arguments (example) Here's an example: All UST students are intelligent and Sarah is a UST student. So it follows that Sarah is intelligent. The premises are: (1) All UST students are intelligent. (2) Sarah is a UST student. Arguments (example) Here's an example: All UST students are intelligent and Sarah is a UST student. So it follows that Sarah is intelligent. The premises are: (1) All UST students are intelligent. (2) Sarah is a UST student. The conclusion is: (C) Sarah is intelligent. Arguments (example) Here's another example: In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. Therefore, if the election were held today, Giuliani would win 60% of the total popular vote. Arguments (example) Here's another example: In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. Therefore, if the election were held today, Giuliani would win 60% of the total popular vote. The premise is: In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. Arguments (example) Here's another example: In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. Therefore, if the election were held today, Giuliani would win 60% of the total popular vote. The premise is: The conclusion is: In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. If the election were held today, Giuliani would win 60% Arguments (example) Not all arguments are as easy to spot: Arguments (example) Not all arguments are as easy to spot: Let's look at "cut and run" as wisdom vs. stupidity by putting it into the setting of a kitchen fire. If a person starts a small fire while cooking eggs, he should look immediately for a fire extinguisher. If the fire gets out of control, spreading into other parts of the house, it's time to get those you love outside, that is, to "cut and run." Bush started a war with high goals. It has gotten way out of hand. Bush does not want to cut and run. At what point does fighting a losing cause change from determination to stubbornness to stupidity? (Stewart R. Perry, Pioneer Press, 9/6/06) Arguments (example) Not all arguments are as easy to spot: The conclusion of the argument here is "The U.S. should withdraw from Iraq," but that conclusion is never directly stated. Arguments (example) Not all arguments are as easy to spot: The conclusion to the argument here is "The U.S. should withdraw from Iraq," but that conclusion is never directly stated. In everyday contexts it can sometimes be difficult to determine when a person is or is not putting forward an argument. Arguments (example) Not all arguments are as easy to spot: The conclusion to the argument here is "The U.S. should withdraw from Iraq," but that conclusion is never directly stated. In everyday contexts it can sometimes be difficult to determine when a person is or is not putting forward an argument. Thankfully, there are some clues that help us to identify premises and conclusions of arguments. Conclusion Indicators Common conclusion indicators are: Therefore Accordingly Wherefore We may conclude Consequently Implies that As a result Thus So Entails that It follows that For this reason We may infer It must be that Hence As such Premise Indicators Common premise indicators are: Since In that Seeing that Because As For As indicated by May be inferred from For the reason that Inasmuch as Given that Owing to Example Example "Nobody likes a whiner. But Terrell Owens is a whiner. So nobody likes him." The conclusion of this argument is: 1. 2. 3. od y O w rr el l ob N Te N ob od y Nobody likes a whiner. Terrell Owens is a whiner. Nobody likes Terrell Owens. 0% r. w hi ne 0% w h. .. 0% rr el l.. . a es en s lik lik es Te a is Example "Forbear to judge, for we are sinners all" William Shakespeare The conclusion of this argument is: Forbear to judge 2. We are sinners all 1. ju d to ar rb e 0% ge 0% rs W e ar e si nn e al l Fo S: Did you not say that the virtue of a man consists of managing the city well, and that of a woman of managing the household? I did. S: Is it possible to manage a city well, or a household, or anything else, while not managing it moderately and justly? Certainly not. S: Then if they manage justly and moderately, they must do so with justice and moderation? Necessarily. S: So both the man and the woman, if they are to be good, need the same things, justice and moderation. Example (Meno 73ab) S: Did you not say that the virtue of a man consists of managing the city well, and that of a woman of managing the household? I did. S: Is it possible to manage a city well, or a household, or anything else, while not managing it moderately and justly? Certainly not. S: Then if they manage justly and moderately, they must do so with justice and moderation? Necessarily. S: So both the man and the woman, if they are to be good, need the same things, justice and moderation. Which is not a premise of the argument here? 1. 2. 3. Example (Meno 73ab) The virtue of a man consists of managing the city well. Is it possible to manage a city well while not managing it moderately and justly? To manage justly and moderately, one must do so with justice and moderation. 0% .. c. m an 0% a. . 0% an ... m an to ib le of vi po e it Th To Is m an ag rtu e ss e ju st a ly Good and Bad Arguments Argument =def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Good and Bad Arguments Argument =def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Good Argument =def An argument in which the premises actually do provide adequate support for the conclusion Good and Bad Arguments Insofar as humans possess the ability to reason, providing good arguments should be one of our central goals in life. It is important both to provide good arguments when communicating with others... ...and to recognize whether the arguments provided by others are good or bad. Good and Bad Arguments Logic is the field of study that provides us with the tools needed to analyze and evaluate arguments. As this course proceeds we will provide you with a variety of methods that will help you to (1) recognize arguments and (2) determine whether or not those arguments are good ones. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PHIL 115 taught by Professor Stoltz during the Fall '07 term at St. Thomas.

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