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Logic 9-20 - Philosophy of the Human Person Logic...

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Philosophy of the Human Person Logic Presentation Sept. 20, 2007
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments Argument = def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the other statements. Deductive argument = def An argument in which the arguer claims that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. Inductive argument = def An argument in which the arguer claims that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true.
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments Example, deductive argument: All movie stars have spent some time in rehab. Harrison Ford is a movie star. Thus, Harrison Ford has spent some time in rehab. Example, inductive argument: A large number of movie stars have spent some time in rehab. Harrison Ford is a famous movie star. Hence, we can justifiably infer that Harrison Ford has spent some time in rehab.
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments There are three ways to determine whether arguments are intended as deductive or inductive: 1. Noting special indicator words 2. Determining the actual strength of the inferential link between premises and conclusion 3. Identifying the form or style of argumentation At this point in the semester we will focus on (1) and (2), but the best method for identifying inductive and deductive arguments is (3).
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Examples
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Examples 1. In a poll of 500 voters, 300 said that if the election were held today they would vote for Giuliani. Therefore, if the election were held today, Giuliani would win 60% of the total popular vote. 1. Deductive 2. Inductive
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Examples 1. Deductive 2. Inductive 1. Either Obama or Clinton will be the democratic presidential nominee. But it won’t be Obama. Therefore, Clinton will be the democratic presidential nominee.
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Arguments Argument = def A group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for,
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