Bio Notes- Midterm 1

Bio Notes- Midterm 1 - Biology 94 Midterm 1 Lecture 1...

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Midterm 1 Lecture 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Two of the greatest unifying ideas in all of science: the cell theory and the theory of evolution. The cell theory proposed that all organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells. The theory of evolution by natural selection maintained that species have changed through time and that all species are relater to one another through common ancestry. A theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena. The cell theory and the theory of evolution provided a foundation for the development of modern biology. In 1665 Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a cork and discover what came to be known as cells. Anton von Leeuwenhoek expanded on his discover by using a higher powered microscope and observed single celled organisms such as Paramecium. A cell is a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure called a plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in a watery solution. A fertilized egg is a cell created by the fusion of sperm and egg. Evolution means that species are not independent and unchanging entities, but are related to one another and can change through time. A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time. The cell is the fundamental structural unit in all organisms. All species are related by common ancestry and have changed over time in response to natural selection. Taxonomy is the effort to name and classify organisms. The taxonomic levels are: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom. Phylogeny is the true historical relationships among types of organisms. Organisms with a nucleus are called eukaryotes and organisms without a nucleus are called prokaryotes. A phylogenetic tree depicts evolutionary history. The three domains of life are called: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Lecture 2 Chapter 23 Evolution by Natural Selection Scientific theories are made up of two pares: the pattern and the process. Darwin believed that species existing today have descended from other, preexisting species and that species are modified or change through time. A fossil is any trace of an organism that lived in the past. The fossil record consists of all the fossils that have been found and described in the scientific literature. A transitional form is a fossil species with traits that are intermediate between those of older and younger species. Resemblances among species are structural, developmental, and genetic in nature. Developmental homology is when newly developing embryos of different species have a similar trait. Vertebrates are animals with backbones.
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Bio Notes- Midterm 1 - Biology 94 Midterm 1 Lecture 1...

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