Fundamentals_of_Abnormal_Psychology_6e_Ch04

2004 muscles of an anxious person the system

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Unformatted text preview: tension and Signal anxiety in everyday stressful situations. Research finds that, in most cases, EMG biofeedback, like relaxation training, has only a modest effect on a person’s anxiety level (Brambrink, 2004). As you will see in the next chapter, biofeedback has had its greatest impact when it plays adjunct roles in the Figure 4-3 treatment of certain medical problems, including headaches and back pain (Astin, 2004; Biofeedback at work This biofeedback system records tension in the forehead Engel et al., 2004). muscles of an anxious person. The system receives, amplifies, converts, and displays information about the tension, allowing the client to “observe” it and to try to reduce his tension responses. SUMMING UP Generalized Anxiety Disorder People with generalized anxiety disorder experience excessive anxiety and worry about a wide range of events and activities. Most explanations and treatments for this disorder have received only limited research support, although recent cognitive and biological approaches are promising. According to the sociocultural view, societal dangers, economic stress, or related racial and cultural pressures create a threatening climate in which cases of generalized anxiety disorder are more likely to develop. In the original psychodynamic explanation, Freud said that this disorder may develop when anxiety is excessive and defense mechanisms break down. Psychodynamic therapists use free association, interpretation, and related psychodynamic techniques to help people overcome this problem. Carl Rogers, the leading humanistic theorist, believed that people with generalized anxiety disorder fail to receive unconditional positive regard from significant others during their childhood and so become overly critical of themselves. He treated such individuals with client-centered therapy. Cognitive theorists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is caused by maladaptive assumptions that lead people to view most life situations as dangerous. Many cognitive theorists also propose that implicit beliefs about the power and value of worrying further contribute to this disorder. Cognitive therapists help clients change such thinking and find more effective ways of coping during stressful situations. Biological theorists hold that generalized anxiety disorder results from low activity of the neurotransmitter GABA. Common biological treatments are antianxiety drugs, particularly benzodiazepines, and certain antidepressant drugs. Relaxation training and biofeedback are also applied in many cases. •phobia•A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation. •specific phobia•A severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation (other than agoraphobia and social phobia). ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 106 jPhobias A phobia (from the Greek word for “fear”) is a persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation. People with a phobia become fearful if they even think about the object or situation they...
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2013 for the course PSY 270 taught by Professor Hall during the Spring '05 term at University of Phoenix.

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