By accepting their thoughts rather than trying to

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Unformatted text preview: e approach, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, was developed by psychologist Steven Hayes and his colleagues as part of their broader treatment approach called acceptance and commitment therapy (Hayes et al., 2004; Hayes, 2004, 2002). Here therapists help clients to become aware of their streams of thoughts, including their worries, as they are occurring and to accept such thoughts as mere events of the mind. By accepting their thoughts rather than trying to eliminate them, the clients are expected to be less upset and affected by them. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has also been applied to a range of other psychological problems such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and substance abuse, often with promising results (Blackledge et al., 2009; Hayes et al., 2004). Signs << The Ring << Alien vs. Predator << The Texas Chainsaw Massacre << Freddy vs. Jason << Charles Barsotti/ FOCUSING ON WORRYING “No, no, that’s not a sin either. My goodness, you must have worried yourself to death.” ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 103 12/10/09 11:16:10 AM 104 ://CHAPTER 4 •family pedigree study•A research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder. •benzodiazepines•The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax. •GABA•The neurotransmitter gammaaminobutyric acid, whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder. •sedative-hypnotic drugs•Drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them to fall asleep at higher doses. •relaxation training•A treatment pro- cedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations. •biofeedback•A technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily. •electromyograph (EMG)•A device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body. Do monkeys experience anxiety? University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory, Madison Clinical researchers must be careful in interpreting the reactions of animal subjects. This infant monkey was considered “fearful” after being separated from its mother. But perhaps it was feeling depressed or experiencing a level of arousal that does not correspond to either fear or depression. ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 104 The Biological Perspective Biological theorists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is caused chiefly by biological factors. For years this claim was supported primarily by family pedigree studies, in which researchers determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder. If biological tendencies toward generalized anxiety disorder are inherited, people who are biologically related should have similar probabilities of developing this disorder. Studies have in fact found that bio...
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