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Unformatted text preview: e approach, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, was developed by psychologist Steven Hayes and his colleagues as part of their broader treatment
approach called acceptance and commitment therapy (Hayes et al., 2004; Hayes, 2004, 2002).
Here therapists help clients to become aware of their streams of thoughts, including
their worries, as they are occurring and to accept such thoughts as mere events of the
mind. By accepting their thoughts rather than trying to eliminate them, the clients are
expected to be less upset and affected by them. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has
also been applied to a range of other psychological problems such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and substance abuse, often with promising
results (Blackledge et al., 2009; Hayes et al., 2004). Signs <<
The Ring <<
Alien vs. Predator <<
The Texas Chainsaw Massacre <<
Freddy vs. Jason << Charles Barsotti/Cartoonbank.com FOCUSING ON WORRYING “No, no, that’s not a sin either. My goodness, you
must have worried yourself to death.” ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 103 12/10/09 11:16:10 AM 104 ://CHAPTER 4 •family pedigree study•A research design in which investigators determine
how many and which relatives of a
person with a disorder have the same
disorder. •benzodiazepines•The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which
includes Valium and Xanax.
•GABA•The neurotransmitter gammaaminobutyric acid, whose low activity
has been linked to generalized anxiety
•sedative-hypnotic drugs•Drugs that
calm people at lower doses and help
them to fall asleep at higher doses. •relaxation training•A treatment pro- cedure that teaches clients to relax at will
so they can calm themselves in stressful
situations. •biofeedback•A technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and
learns to control the reactions voluntarily. •electromyograph (EMG)•A device
that provides feedback about the level of
muscular tension in the body. Do monkeys
experience anxiety? University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory, Madison Clinical researchers must be careful in
interpreting the reactions of animal subjects.
This infant monkey was considered “fearful”
after being separated from its mother. But
perhaps it was feeling depressed or experiencing a level of arousal that does not
correspond to either fear or depression. ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd
ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 104 The Biological Perspective
Biological theorists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is caused chiefly by biological factors. For years this claim was supported primarily by family pedigree
studies, in which researchers determine how many and which relatives of a person with
a disorder have the same disorder. If biological tendencies toward generalized anxiety
disorder are inherited, people who are biologically related should have similar probabilities of developing this disorder. Studies have in fact found that bio...
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