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Unformatted text preview: uations (Fisher et al., 2004). SUMMING UP
A phobia is a severe, persistent, and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or
situation. There are three main categories of phobias: specific phobias, social phobias,
and agoraphobia. Behavioral explanations of phobias, particularly specific phobias,
are the most influential. Behaviorists believe that phobias are learned through classical
conditioning or modeling, and then are maintained by avoidance behaviors.
Specific phobias have been treated most successfully with behavioral exposure
techniques. The exposure may be gradual and relaxed (desensitization), intense
(flooding), or vicarious (modeling).
Therapists who treat social phobias typically separate two features of this disorder: social fears and poor social skills. They try to reduce clients’ social fears by
drug, exposure, group, or cognitive therapy—or a combination of these interventions. They may try to improve social skills by social skills training. ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 115 BETWEEN THE LINES
Many individuals in today’s digital music
world share music playlists, so it may not
be surprising that researchers have observed that a growing number of people
are experiencing “playlist anxiety”—
intense concern about the image they are
projecting through the music they make
available to others. The problem is particularly common among college students
and office workers. A respondent in one
study disclosed, “I just went through my
playlist and said, ‘I wonder what kind
of image this is giving of me.’ I went
through it to see if there was stuff that I
would not like people to know I had.” <<
(Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems, 2005; ZDNET, 2005) 12/10/09 11:16:22 AM 116 ://CHAPTER 4 table: jPanic Disorder 4-8
DSM Checklist PANIC DISORDER
1. Recurrent unexpected panic
2. A month or more of one of the
following after at least one of the
(a) Persistent concern about having additional attacks.
(b) Worry about the implications
or consequences of the attack.
(c) Significant change in behavior
related to the attacks.
Based on APA, 2000. •panic attacks•Periodic, short bouts of
panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak
within minutes, and gradually pass.
•panic disorder•An anxiety disorder
marked by recurrent and unpredictable
•agoraphobia•An anxiety disorder in
which a person is afraid to be in places
or situations from which escape might
be difficult (or embarrassing) or help
unavailable if panic-like symptoms were
to occur. ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 116 Sometimes an anxiety reaction takes the form of a smothering, nightmarish panic in
which people lose control of their behavior and, in fact, are practically unaware of what
they are doing. Anyone can react with panic when a real threat looms up suddenly. Some
people, however, experience panic attacks—periodic, short bouts of panic that occur
suddenly, reach a peak within 10 minutes, and gradually pass.
The attacks feature at least four of the following symptoms of panic:...
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