In one version of modeling participant modeling the

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Unformatted text preview: rapist had her imagine the following scene, among others: :// 113 •exposure treatments•Behavioral treatments in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread. •systematic desensitization•A behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread. •flooding•A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless. In modeling it is the therapist who confronts the feared object or situation while the fearful person observes (Bandura, 2004, 1977, 1971; Bandura et al., 1977). The behavioral therapist acts as a model to demonstrate that the person’s fear is groundless. After several sessions many clients are able to approach the objects or situations calmly. In one version of modeling, participant modeling, the client is actively encouraged to join in with the therapist. Clinical researchers have repeatedly found that each of the exposure treatments helps people with specific phobias (Farmer & Chapman, 2008; Pull, 2005). The key to success in all of these therapies appears to be actual contact with the feared object or situation. In vivo desensitization is more effective than covert desensitization, in vivo flooding more effective than covert flooding, and participant modeling more helpful than strictly observational modeling. In addition, a growing number of therapists are using virtual reality—3D computer graphics that simulate real-world objects and situations—as a useful exposure tool (Winerman, 2005). Treatments for Social Phobias Only in recent years have clinicians been able to treat social phobias successfully (Rosenberg, Ledley, & Heimberg, 2010; Ruscio et al., 2008). Their newfound success is due in part to the growing recognition that social phobias have two distinct features that may feed upon each other: (1) People with such phobias may have overwhelming social fears, and (2) they may lack skill at starting conversations, communicating their needs, or meeting the needs of others. Armed with this insight, clinicians now treat social phobias by trying to reduce social fears, by providing training in social skills, or both. Kent News & Picture/Corbis Sygma Close your eyes again. Picture the snake out in front of you, now make yourself pick it up. Reach down, pick it up, put it in your lap, feel it wiggling around in your lap, leave your hand on it, put your hand out and feel it wiggling around. Kind of explore its body with your fingers and hand. You don’t like to do it, make yourself do it. Make yourself do it. Really grab onto the snake. Squeeze it a little bit, feel it. Feel it kind of start to wind around your hand. Let it. Leave your hand there, feel it touching your hand and winding around it, curling around your wrist. (Hogan, 1968, p. 423) Participant modeling Employing the exposure technique of participant modeling, therapist Pete Cohen treats clients...
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2013 for the course PSY 270 taught by Professor Hall during the Spring '05 term at University of Phoenix.

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